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(1/124) Reduced up-regulation of memory and adhesion/integrin molecules in susceptible mice and poor expression of immunity to pulmonary tuberculosis.

Previous studies examining the expression of adhesion and integrin molecules on CD4 T lymphocytes generated in response to virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection revealed that certain inbred mouse strains susceptible to breakdown of chronic disease and subsequent reactivation had poor expression of these molecules, which might underlie their inability to adequately focus into lung tissues and mediate protection. The current study examines the possibility that prior vaccination with BCG, or a prior tuberculosis infection, would overcome this deficiency. It was found, however, that this was not the case. Whereas both resistant (C57BL/6) and susceptible (DBA/2, CBA/J) strains were equally well protected in the spleen after intravenous challenge, the latter strains were poorly protected in the lungs regardless of whether the challenge was given by the intravenous or aerosol route. Again, this was associated with poor up-regulation of adhesion and integrin molecules and with histological evidence in memory immune animals of a reduced and delayed influx of T lymphocytes into the lungs.  (+info)

(2/124) In vivo IL-10 production reactivates chronic pulmonary tuberculosis in C57BL/6 mice.

The production of immunosuppressive cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-beta, has been documented in individuals diagnosed with active tuberculosis. In addition, IL-10 production is increased within the lungs of mice that have chronic mycobacterial infection. Therefore, we hypothesized that the down-regulatory properties of IL-10 might contribute to the reactivation of chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. To determine the influence of IL-10 on the course of infection, transgenic mice producing increased amounts of IL-10 under the control of the IL-2 promotor were infected with M. tuberculosis via the respiratory route. Mice that overexpressed IL-10 showed no increase in susceptibility during the early stages of infection, but during the chronic phase of the infection showed evidence of reactivation tuberculosis with a highly significant increase in bacterial numbers within the lungs. Reactivation was associated with the formation of macrophage-dominated lesions, decreased mRNA production for TNF and IL-12p40, and a decrease in Ag-specific IFN-gamma secretion. These data support the hypothesis that IL-10 plays a pivotal role during the chronic/latent stage of pulmonary tuberculosis, with increased production playing a potentially central role in promoting reactivation tuberculosis.  (+info)

(3/124) ICSBP is essential for the development of mouse type I interferon-producing cells and for the generation and activation of CD8alpha(+) dendritic cells.

Interferon (IFN) consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) is a transcription factor playing a critical role in the regulation of lineage commitment, especially in myeloid cell differentiation. In this study, we have characterized the phenotype and activation pattern of subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) in ICSBP(-/-) mice. Remarkably, the recently identified mouse IFN-producing cells (mIPCs) were absent in all lymphoid organs from ICSBP(-/-) mice, as revealed by lack of CD11c(low)B220(+)Ly6C(+)CD11b(-) cells. In parallel, CD11c(+) cells isolated from ICSBP(-/-) spleens were unable to produce type I IFNs in response to viral stimulation. ICSBP(-/-) mice also displayed a marked reduction of the DC subset expressing the CD8alpha marker (CD8alpha(+) DCs) in spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus. Moreover, ICSBP(-/-) CD8alpha(+) DCs exhibited a markedly impaired phenotype when compared with WT DCs. They expressed very low levels of costimulatory molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1, CD40, CD80, CD86) and of the T cell area-homing chemokine receptor CCR7, whereas they showed higher levels of CCR2 and CCR6, as revealed by reverse transcription PCR. In addition, these cells were unable to undergo full phenotypic activation upon in vitro culture in presence of maturation stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide or poly (I:C), which paralleled with lack of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 mRNA expression. Finally, cytokine expression pattern was also altered in ICSBP(-/-) DCs, as they did not express interleukin (IL)-12p40 or IL-15, but they displayed detectable IL-4 mRNA levels. On the whole, these results indicate that ICSBP is a crucial factor in the regulation of two possibly linked processes: (a) the development and activity of mIPCs, whose lack in ICSBP(-/-) mice may explain their high susceptibility to virus infections; (b) the generation and activation of CD8alpha(+) DCs, whose impairment in ICSBP(-/-) mice can be responsible for the defective generation of a Th1 type of immune response.  (+info)

(4/124) Roles of neutrophil beta 2 integrins in kinetics of bacteremia, extravasation, and tick acquisition of Anaplasma phagocytophila in mice.

Tick saliva contains anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive substances that facilitate blood feeding and enhance tick-vectored pathogen transmission, including Anaplasma phagocytophila an etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis. As such, inflammation at a tick-feeding site is strikingly different than that typically observed at other sites of inflammation. Up-regulation of CD11b/CD18 occurs in host granulocytes following interaction or infection with A phagocytophila, and the absence of CD11b/CD18 results in early increases in bacteremia. We hypothesized that beta 2 integrin-dependent infection kinetics and leukocyte extravasation are important determinants of neutrophil trafficking to, and pathogen acquisition at, tick-feeding sites. A phagocytophila infection kinetics were evaluated in CD11a/CD18, CD11b/CD18, and CD18 knock-out mice using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of blood, ticks, and skin biopsies in conjunction with histopathology. A marked increase in the rate of A phagocytophila infection of neutrophils and pathogen burden in blood followed tick feeding. Infection kinetics were modified by beta 2 integrin expression and systemic neutrophil counts. Significant neutrophil-pathogen trafficking was observed to both suture and tick sites. Despite the prominent role for beta 2 integrins in neutrophil arrest in flowing blood, successful pathogen acquisition by ticks occurred in the absence of beta 2 integrins. Establishment of feeding pools that rely less on leukocyte trafficking and more on small hemorrhages may explain the ready amplification of A phagocytophila DNA from ticks infested on CD11/CD18-deficient mouse strains.  (+info)

(5/124) Regulation of cellular adhesion molecule expression in murine oocytes, peri-implantation and post-implantation embryos.

Expression of the adhesion molecules, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, NCAM, CD44, CD49d (VLA-4, alpha chain), and CD11a (LFA-1, alpha chain) on mouse oocytes, and pre- and peri-implantation stage embryos was examined by quantitative indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. ICAM-1 was most strongly expressed at the oocyte stage, gradually declining almost to undetectable levels by the expanded blastocyst stage. NCAM, also expressed maximally on the oocyte, declined to undetectable levels beyond the morula stage. On the other hand, CD44 declined from highest expression at the oocyte stage to show a second maximum at the compacted 8-cell/morula. This molecule exhibited high expression around contact areas between trophectoderm and zona pellucida during blastocyst hatching. CD49d was highly expressed in the oocyte, remained significantly expressed throughout and after blastocyst hatching was expressed on the polar trophectoderm. Like CD44, CD49d declined to undetectable levels at the blastocyst outgrowth stage. Expression of both VCAM-1 and CD11a was undetectable throughout. The diametrical temporal expression pattern of ICAM-1 and NCAM compared to CD44 and CD49d suggest that dynamic changes in expression of adhesion molecules may be important for interaction of the embryo with the maternal cellular environment as well as for continuing development and survival of the early embryo.  (+info)

(6/124) Ly6C induces clustering of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) and is involved in subtype-specific adhesion of CD8 T cells.

Ly6C is a hemopoietic cell differentiation Ag found on a subset of CD8 T cells in the periphery. It is involved in target cell killing by CTLs, augments TCR-mediated activation of IL-2 and IFN-gamma production in CD8 T cells, and regulates CD8 T cell homing in vivo. In this study, we show that cross-linking of Ly6C causes clustering of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) on the surface of CD8 T cells via a mechanism dependent on reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and intracellular protease, calpain, but not the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. In the capillary flow-adhesion assay, Ly6C cross-linking significantly augments lymphocyte adhesion to endothelium, and this is inhibited by an Ab that blocks LFA-1 function. Furthermore, upon in vitro cross-linking and during in vivo homing into lymph nodes, Ly6C is transiently lost from cell surface but becomes re-expressed on lymph node-resident CD8 T cells. The abilities of Ly6C to induce LFA-1 clustering and to be re-expressed after signaling-associated down-regulation may be important in regulating the homing of CD8 T cells into lymph nodes and in subsequent steps of CD8 T cell activation and effector function that again involve LFA-1.  (+info)

(7/124) Rho GTPase is activated by cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 in peripheral blood T lymphocytes: potential cytotoxicity for intestinal epithelial cells.

Some strains of Escherichia coli related to acute cystitis or colitis produce a toxin named cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF-1). CNF-1 mediates its effects on epithelial cells or phagocytes via the permanent activation of small GTP-binding proteins, caused by the toxin-induced deamidation of Glu(63) of p21 Rho. The behavior of peripheral blood T lymphocytes during the acute phase of bacterial colitis has been poorly investigated. Our study was conducted to test whether (i) peripheral blood T lymphocytes can be activated by CNF-1 and (ii) CNF-1-activated T lymphocytes are cytotoxic against intestinal epithelial cells. Activation of T lymphocytes by CNF-1 was assessed by electrophoresis, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and electron microscopy studies. Assays for migration and adherence of CNF-1-treated T lymphocytes were performed in Transwell chambers with T84 intestinal epithelial cells grown on polycarbonate semipermeable filters. CNF-1 induced a decrease in the electrophoretic mobility of the GTP-binding protein Rho in treated T lymphocytes. CNF-1 provoked an increase in the content of actin stress fibers and pseudopodia in T lymphocytes. Several adherence molecules were clustered into cytoplasmic projections in CNF-1-treated T lymphocytes and adherence of such lymphocytes on the basolateral pole of T84 was increased, resulting in cytotoxicity toward epithelial cells. Such enhanced adherence in response to CNF-1 was dependent on p42-44(MAP) kinase activation of T lymphocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that CNF-1, by acting on T lymphocytes, may increase in an important fashion the virulence of certain strains of E. coli against the intestinal epithelia.  (+info)

(8/124) Transmission of pseudorabies virus from immune-masked blood monocytes to endothelial cells.

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) may cause abortion, even in the presence of vaccination-induced immunity. Blood monocytes are essential to transport the virus in these immune animals, including transport to the pregnant uterus. Infected monocytes express viral proteins on their cell surface. Specific antibodies recognize these proteins and should activate antibody-dependent cell lysis. Previous work showed that addition of PRV-specific polyclonal antibodies to PRV-infected monocytes induced internalization of viral cell surface proteins, protecting the cells from efficient antibody-dependent lysis in vitro (immune-masked monocytes). As a first step to reach the pregnant uterus, PRV has to cross the endothelial cell barrier of the maternal blood vessels. The current aim was to investigate in vitro whether immune-masked PRV-infected monocytes can transmit PRV in the presence of virus-neutralizing antibodies via adhesion and fusion of these monocytes with endothelial cells. Porcine blood monocytes, infected with a lacZ-carrying PRV strain, were incubated with PRV-specific antibodies to induce internalization. Then, cells were co-cultivated with endothelial cells for different periods of time. Only PRV-infected monocytes with internalized viral cell surface proteins adhered efficiently to endothelial cells. LacZ transmission to endothelial cells, as a measure for monocyte-endothelial cell fusion, could be detected after co-cultivation from 30 min onwards. Virus transmission was confirmed by the appearance of plaques. Adhesion of immune-masked PRV-infected monocytes to endothelial cells was mediated by cellular adhesion complex CD11b-CD18 and subsequent fusion was mediated by the virus. In conclusion, immune-masked PRV-infected monocytes can adhere and subsequently transmit virus to endothelial cells in the presence of PRV-neutralizing antibodies.  (+info)