Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: comparison of serological and immunological responses using pili fractions of Moraxella bovis.
The effect of vaccinating cattle and mice on the development of keratoconjunctivitis was studied. Cattle were vaccinated with whole cells, disrupted cells and pili fractions of three strains of Moraxella bovis. Mice were vaccinated with pili fractions of three strains. The resistance of all vaccinated animals was challenged with virulent cultures of M. bovis. In an attempt to correlate the response seen after vaccination and challenge with a pili fraction of M. bovis, vaccinated cattle and mice were grouped on the basis of signs of disease manifested and compared on the basis of serological responses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by a gel diffusion precipitin test. A greater number of the sera of resistant cattle had antibodies to the homologous pili antigen than those of vaccinated nonresistant cattle. Cattle vaccinated with disrupted cells were not resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to challenge exposure by homologous than heterologous cultures. A greater number of the sera of resistant mice had antibodies to pili antigens than nonresistant mice. (+info)
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: experimental production in calves with antigens of Micropolyspora faeni.
Pneumonitis was induced in calves by exposure to aerosols of Micropolyspora faeni with or without prior sensitization of the animals by subcutaneous injection of antigen. The pneumonitis primarily involved centrolobular areas and was characterized by alveolar septal thickening and loss of air space by cellular infiltration. Vasculitis and focal haemorrhage occurred in certain individuals and haemoproteinaceous exudate appeared within septa and alveolar lumina. The pneumonitis was compared with human farmer's lung, pneumonitis of housed cattle and other experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitides. (+info)
The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration.
AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin. (+info)
Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis.
AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection. (+info)
Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis.
Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen. (+info)
Pathogenicity island 2 mutants of Salmonella typhimurium are efficient carriers for heterologous antigens and enable modulation of immune responses.
The potential use as vaccine delivery system of Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring defined mutations in the sseC (HH104) and sseD (MvP101) genes, which encode putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, was evaluated and compared with that of the well-characterized aroA mutant strain SL7207 by using beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) as a model antigen. When orally administered to immune-competent or gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) BALB/c mice, both mutants were found to be highly attenuated (50% lethal dose, >10(9) bacteria). Both strains were also able to efficiently colonize and persist in Peyer's patches. Immunization with HH104 and MvP101 triggered beta-Gal-specific serum and mucosal antibody responses equivalent to or stronger than those observed in SL7207-immunized mice. Although immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) serum antibodies were dominant in all groups, IgG1 was also significantly increased in mice vaccinated with MvP101 and SL7207. Comparable beta-Gal-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal lavages from mice immunized with the different strains. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T-helper cells were generated after vaccination with all vaccine prototypes; however, responses were significantly more efficient when HH104 and MvP101 were used (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by restimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with HH104 than from those vaccinated with the MvP101 or SL7207 derivatives (P +info)
Transcutaneous immunization with bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as antigens and adjuvants.
Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a new technique that uses the application of vaccine antigens in a solution on the skin to induce potent antibody responses without systemic or local toxicity. We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for oral and nasal immunization, can induce both serum and mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and protect against toxin-mediated mucosal disease when administered by the transcutaneous route. Additionally, CT acts as an adjuvant for coadministered antigens such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids when applied to the skin. CT, a member of the bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxin (bARE) family, is most potent as an adjuvant when the A-B subunits are present and functional. We now show that TCI induces secondary antibody responses to coadministered antigens as well as to CT in response to boosting immunizations. IgG antibodies to coadministered antigens were also found in the stools and lung washes of immunized mice, suggesting that TCI may target mucosal pathogens. Mice immunized by the transcutaneous route with tetanus fragment C and CT developed anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies and were protected against systemic tetanus toxin challenge. We also show that bAREs, similarly organized as A-B subunits, as well as the B subunit of CT alone, induced antibody responses to themselves when given via TCI. Thus, TCI appears to induce potent, protective immune responses to both systemic and mucosal challenge and offers significant potential practical advantages for vaccine delivery. (+info)
A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer.
A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction. (+info)