Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes.
Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests. (+info)
Early mycological treatment failure in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
Cryptococcal meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality in persons with AIDS. Of 236 AIDS patients treated with amphotericin B plus flucytosine, 29 (12%) died within 2 weeks and 62 (26%) died before 10 weeks. Just 129 (55%) of 236 patients were alive with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures at 10 weeks. Multivariate analyses identified that titer of cryptococcal antigen in CSF, serum albumin level, and CD4 cell count, together with dose of amphotericin B, had the strongest joint association with failure to achieve negative CSF cultures by day 14. Among patients with similar CSF cryptococcal antigen titers, CD4 cell counts, and serum albumin levels, the odds of failure at week 10 for those without negative CSF cultures by day 14 was five times that for those with negative CSF cultures by day 14 (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-10.9). Prognosis is dismal for patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Multivariate analyses identified three components that, along with initial treatment, have the strongest joint association with early outcome. Clearly, more effective initial therapy and patient management strategies that address immune function and nutritional status are needed to improve outcomes of this disease. (+info)
Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia. (+info)
Systemic candidiasis with candida vasculitis due to Candida kruzei in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia.
Candida kruzei-related systemic infections are increasing in frequency, particularly in patients receiving prophylaxis with antifungal triazoles. A Caucasian male with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML M1) developed severe and persistent fever associated with a micropustular eruption scattered over the trunk and limbs during induction chemotherapy. Blood cultures grew Candida kruzei, and biopsies of the skin lesions revealed a candida vasculitis. He responded to high doses of liposomal amphotericin B and was discharged well from hospital. (+info)
Structure of the complex between the antibiotic cerulenin and its target, beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase.
In the biosynthesis of fatty acids, the beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthases catalyze chain elongation by the addition of two-carbon units derived from malonyl-ACP to an acyl group bound to either ACP or CoA. The enzyme is a possible drug target for treatment of certain cancers and for tuberculosis. The crystal structure of the complex of the enzyme from Escherichia coli, and the fungal mycotoxin cerulenin reveals that the inhibitor is bound in a hydrophobic pocket formed at the dimer interface. Cerulenin is covalently attached to the active site cysteine through its C2 carbon atom. The fit of the inhibitor to the active site is not optimal, and there is thus room for improvement through structure based design. (+info)
BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties.
A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells. (+info)
In vitro and in vivo activities of NS-718, a new lipid nanosphere incorporating amphotericin B, against Aspergillus fumigatus.
We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo potencies of a new lipid nanosphere that incorporates amphotericin B (AmB), NS-718, against Aspergillus fumigatus. The in vitro activity of NS-718 (the MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC90], 0.25 microgram/ml) against 18 isolates of A. fumigatus was similar to that of deoxycholate AmB (D-AmB; Fungizone; MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml), but NS-718 was more potent than liposomal AmB (L-AmB; AmBi-some; MIC90, 1.0 microgram/ml). The in vivo efficacy of NS-718 in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was compared with those of D-AmB and L-AmB. A low dose (1 mg/kg of body weight) of L-AmB was ineffective (survival rate, 0%), although equivalent doses of D-AmB and NS-718 were more effective (survival rate, 17%). However, a higher dose of NS-718 (3 mg/kg) was more effective (survival rate, 100%) than equivalent doses of D-AmB and L-AmB (survival rate, 0%). To explain these differences, pharmacokinetic studies showed higher concentrations of AmB in the plasma of rats treated with NS-718 than in the plasma of those treated with D-AmB. Our results suggest that NS-718, a new preparation of AmB, is a promising antifungal agent with activity against pulmonary aspergillosis. (+info)
Effect of fasting on temporal variation in the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in rats.
Evidence for temporal variation in the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B was recently reported in experimental animals. The role of food in these variations was determined by studying the effect of a short fasting period on the temporal variation in the renal toxicity of amphotericin B. Twenty-eight normally fed and 28 fasted female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Food was available ad libitum to the fed rats, while the fasted animals were fasted 12 h before and 24 h after amphotericin B injection to minimize stress for the animals. Water was available ad libitum to both groups of rats, which were maintained on a 14-h light, 10-h dark regimen (light on at 0600 h). Renal toxicity was determined by comparing the levels of excretion of renal enzyme and the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels at the time of the maximal (0700 h) or the minimal (1900 h) nephrotoxicity after the intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of dextrose (5%; control group) or amphotericin B (50 mg/kg of body weight; treated group) to the rats. The nephrotoxicities obtained after amphotericin B administration at both times of day were compared to the nephrotoxicities observed for time-matched controls. In fed animals, the 24-h urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and beta-galactosidase was significantly higher when amphotericin B was injected at 0700 and 1900 h. The excretion of these two enzymes was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in fasting rats, and this effect was larger at 0700 h (P < 0.05) than at 1900 h. The serum creatinine level was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in fed animals treated at 0700 h than in fed animals treated at 1900 h. Fasting reduced significantly (P < 0.05) the increase in the serum creatinine level, and this effect was larger in the animals treated at 0700 h. Similar data were obtained for BUN levels. Amphotericin B accumulation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the renal cortexes of fed rats than in those of fasted animals, but there was no difference according to the time of injection. These results demonstrated that fasting reduces the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B and that food availability is of crucial importance in the temporal variation in the renal toxicity of amphotericin B in rats. (+info)