Intravesicular instillation of E-aminocaproic acid for patients with adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. (9/402)

Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a known complication of allogenic BMT. We report a case of a 28-year-old female with CML in chronic phase, which was treated with a matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplant, complicated by hemorrhagic cystitis on day +42 after the transplant. Adenovirus was isolated from the urine and she was treated with ribavirin, 1 g twice a day for 8 days. We report the use of Amicar (E-aminocaproic acid), 2.5 g solution as bladder instillation to treat the intractable hematuria.  (+info)

Use of tranexamic acid for an effective blood conservation strategy after total knee arthroplasty. (10/402)

We have investigated the effect of treatment with tranexamic acid, an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, on blood loss, blood transfusion requirements and blood coagulation in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 42 patients after total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid 15 mg kg-1 (n = 21) or an equivalent volume of normal saline (n = 21) was given 30 min before surgery and subsequently every 8 h for 3 days. Coagulation and fibrinolysis values, blood loss and blood units administered were measured before administration of tranexamic acid, 8 h after the end of surgery and at 24 and 72 h after operation. Coagulation profile was examined (bleeding time, platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), plasminogen, beta-thromboglobulin and fibrinogen). Fibrinolysis was evaluated by measurement of concentrations of D-dimer and fibrinogen degradation products (FDP). Total blood loss in the tranexamic acid group was 678 (SD 352) ml compared with 1419 (607) ml in the control group (P < 0.001), and occurred primarily during the first 24 h after surgery. Thirteen patients received 1-5 u. of packed red blood cells in the control group compared with two patients in the tranexamic acid group, who received 3 u. (P < 0.001). Postoperative packed cell volume values were higher in the tranexamic acid group despite fewer blood transfusions. Postoperative concentrations of plasminogen were decreased significantly in the tranexamic acid group (P < 0.001). Platelet count, PT, aPTT, bleeding time, beta-thromboglobulin, fibrinogen and FDP concentrations did not differ between groups, but D-dimer concentrations were increased in the control group. Thromboembolic complications occurred in two patients in the control group compared with none in the tranexamic acid group.  (+info)

Comparison of blood-conservation strategies in cardiac surgery patients at high risk for bleeding. (11/402)

BACKGROUND: Aprotinin and tranexamic acid are routinely used to reduce bleeding in cardiac surgery. There is a large difference in agent price and perhaps in efficacy. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, partially blinded study, 168 cardiac surgery patients at high risk for bleeding received either a full-dose aprotinin infusion, tranexamic acid (10-mg/kg load, 1-mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) infusion), tranexamic acid with pre-cardiopulmonary bypass autologous whole-blood collection (12.5% blood volume) and reinfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass (combined therapy), or saline infusion (placebo group). RESULTS: There were complete data in 160 patients. The aprotinin (n = 40) and combined therapy (n = 32) groups (data are median [range]) had similar reductions in blood loss in the first 4 h in the intensive care unit (225 [40-761] and 163 [25-760] ml, respectively; P = 0.014), erythrocyte transfusion requirements in the first 24 h in the intensive care unit (0 [0-3] and 0 [0-3] U, respectively; P = 0.004), and durations of time from end of cardiopulmonary bypass to discharge from the operating room (92 [57-215] and 94 [37, 186] min, respectively; P = 0.01) compared with the placebo group (n = 43). Ten patients in the combined therapy group (30.3%) required transfusion of the autologous blood during cardiopulmonary bypass for anemia. CONCLUSIONS: The combination therapy of tranexamic acid and intraoperative autologous blood collection provided similar reduction in blood loss and transfusion requirements as aprotinin. Cost analyses revealed that combined therapy and tranexamic acid therapy were the least costly therapies.  (+info)

Quantification of D-dimer using a new fully automated assay: its application for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis. (12/402)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A D-dimer assay can be helpful to rule out thromboembolism provided it is sensitive, reliable, fast and easy to perform. Tests based on the ELISA methodology have a high diagnostic sensitivity, and are therefore adequate for excluding deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The drawbacks are their long assay times, unsuitability to be run on single samples and cost. New methods have been developed, based either on the same principle, by immunofiltration or by microlatex immunoturbidimetric assays which seem to reach the high sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) required, but allowing fast and quantitative single sample analysis. The aim of this work was to evaluate one rapid test, a fully automated quantitative assay (IL Test D-dimer, run on an ACL 7000 coagulation analyzer, Instrumentation Laboratory). DESIGN AND METHODS: We compared the diagnostic value of IL Test for DVT with that of an ELISA (Dimertest Gold EIA Agen Biomedical Limited, Acacia Ridge, Australia). Eighty-six patients (43 men, 43 women, mean age: 61 years) showing DVT symptoms formed the population for this non-randomized controlled trial in a referral center. The diagnosis of DVT based on the clinical history, was confirmed by serial compression ultrasonography (CUS) with Doppler flow in 62 patients. RESULTS: The IL Test D-dimer proved to be rapid, automated and well suited for individual tests with a good reproducibility in three control plasmas with different concentrations of D-dimer (coefficient of variation range 0.54-3. 87%). Its performance was comparable to that of the Dimertest Gold EIA, as indicated by the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (Dimertest Gold EIA 0.748; IL Test D-dimer 0.70). On the basis of kappa coefficients, there was a good concordance between the Dimertest Gold EIA and IL Test D-dimer when the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves suggested cut-offs were used. The sensitivity (98.3%) and NPV (88.9%) shown by IL Test D-dimer are comparable or even better than those obtained for EIA (95%, 80%, respectively). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the new method can be included in prospective clinical trials to test the utility of D-dimer measurement in combination with other non-invasive diagnostic procedures in the management of DVT diagnosis.  (+info)

Hemostatic markers in patients at risk of cerebral ischemia. (13/402)

BACKGROUND: Increased levels of markers of hemostasis may assist in the determination of the extent of carotid occlusive disease and the identification of neurologically intact individuals at increased risk of ischemic events. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 304 subjects, including 82 with a recent (< or =7 days) transient ischemic attack (TIA), 157 asymptomatic individuals with a cervical bruit, and 65 control subjects. Baseline evaluation included a neurological assessment, ECG, cervical ultrasonography, and cerebral CT and/or MRI. Levels of markers of coagulation and fibrinolytic activity were also determined. Results were analyzed in relation to the degree of carotid disease and the subsequent occurrence of cerebral and cardiac ischemic events. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up period of 2.8 years (SD, 1.3 years), 114 ischemic events occurred. Survival analyses showed that prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F(1.2)) was a predictor of time to cerebral and cardiac ischemic events in the combined TIA and asymptomatic bruit group (relative risk [RR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.81) as well as in the asymptomatic bruit group separately (RR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.53). In the TIA group, both F(1.2) (RR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.19 to 4.68) and severe (> or =80%) carotid stenosis (RR, 3.53; 95% CI, 1.19 to 10.51) were predictive of time to ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with TIAs and in asymptomatic individuals with cervical bruits, F(1.2) levels were found to be independent predictors of subsequent cerebral and cardiac ischemic events. Our results are consistent with an active role of the coagulation system through upregulation of thrombin in carotid disease progression and in the pathogenesis of ischemic events in patients at risk.  (+info)

Cartilage degradation and invasion by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts is inhibited by gene transfer of a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor. (14/402)

OBJECTIVE: Joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a result of degradation and invasion of the articular cartilage by the pannus tissue. The present study was undertaken to examine the role of the plasminogen activation system in cartilage degradation and invasion by synovial fibroblasts and investigate a novel gene therapeutic approach using a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor (ATF.BPTI). METHODS: Adenoviral vectors were used for gene transfer. The effects of ATF.BPTI gene transfer on RA synovial fibroblast-dependent cartilage degradation were studied in vitro, and cartilage invasion was studied in vivo in the SCID mouse coimplantation model. RESULTS: The results indicate that cartilage matrix degradation by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts is plasmin mediated and depends on urokinase-type plasminogen activator for activation. Targeting plasmin inhibition to the cell surface of the fibroblasts by gene transfer of a cell surface-binding plasmin inhibitor resulted in a significant reduction of cartilage matrix degradation in vitro and of cartilage invasion in vivo. Compared with uninfected rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts, the mean +/-SEM cartilage degradation in vitro was reduced to 87.9+/-0.9% after LacZ gene transfer versus a reduction to 24.0+/-1.6% after ATF.BPTI gene transfer (P<0.0001). The mean +/- SEM in vivo cartilage invasion score was 3.1+/-0.4 in the control-transduced fibroblasts and 1.8+/-0.4 in the ATF.BPTI-transduced fibroblasts (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: These results indicate a role of the plasminogen activation system in synovial fibroblast-dependent cartilage degradation and invasion in RA, and demonstrate an effective way to inhibit this by gene transfer of a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor.  (+info)

Plasma and platelet plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction. (15/402)

Several studies have demonstrated an increased level of plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the concentration of PAI-1 in platelets, which accounts for more than 90% of the blood PAI-1, is unknown in these patients. The present study evaluated the concentrations of PAI-1 and several fibrinolytic factors in the plasma and platelets of patients with CAD and the serial changes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). All 72 subjects had coronary angiography and were divided into 3 groups: CAD(-) group without coronary artery stenosis or myocardial ischemia (n=20), CAD(+) group with either stable angina pectoris (n=18) or old myocardial infarction (n=12) with coronary artery stenosis, and the AMI group admitted within 24h of symptom onset who underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (n=22). The concentrations of plasma PAI-1, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), and t-PA x PAI-1 complex were similar in the CAD(-) and CAD(+) groups, but were greater on day 1 in the AMI group compared with the 2 CAD groups. There were no significant differences between the 3 groups in the plasma concentrations of thrombin antithrombin III complex (TAT), alpha2-plasmin inhibitor-plasmin complex (PIC), beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG), and platelet factor 4 (PF-4). The platelet PAI-1 concentrations did not differ between the CAD(-) and CAD(+) groups, but was greater on day 1 in the AMI group compared to the CAD groups. The platelet beta-TG and PF-4 were similar between the 3 groups. In the AMI group, both the plasma and platelet PAI-1 concentrations were greater on day 1, but the plasma PAI-1 rapidly decreased by day 5 and remained low on day 28 compared with day 1. The platelet PAI-1 concentration gradually decreased by day 5 and was further decreased by day 28. The serial changes of the plasma t-PA and t-PA PAI-1 complex during the course of AMI were similar to those of the plasma PAI-1. A positive correlation was found between the plasma and platelet PAI-1 in all 72 patients, but not in the AMI group alone. These results suggest that the PAI-1 that has accumulated in platelets at the onset of AMI might be released in large amounts into the plasma, resulting in an increase in thrombus formation.  (+info)

Understanding the fluorescence changes of human plasminogen when it binds the ligand, 6-aminohexanoate: a synthesis. (16/402)

This work attempts to explain several aspects of the response of plasminogen to 6-aminohexanoate (6-AH). These responses include the overall fluorescent changes that occur when plasminogen binds the ligand, the changes shown by the individual domains when they bind the ligand, and the changes in structure shown by the holoprotein when it binds 6-AH. The results have implications for understanding the physicochemical behavior of all kringle based proteins.  (+info)