Aprotinin but not epsilon-aminocaproic acid decreases interleukin-10 after cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients receiving aprotinin and epsilon-aminocaproic acid. (33/402)

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal circulation induces a systemic inflammatory response, which may adversely affect organ function. One manifestation of this response is increased fibrinolysis. Antifibrinolytic drugs such as aprotinin and epsilon-aminocaproic acid have been effective in reducing fibrinolysis and blood loss after extracorporeal circulation; however, the effects of antifibrinolytic drugs on proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators are not known. This study examined the effects of aprotinin and epsilon-aminocaproic acid on plasma levels of proinflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and anti-inflammatory [interleukin-10 (IL-10)] cytokines during and after extracorporeal circulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-two patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with extracorporeal circulation were randomly assigned in a double-blind study to receive high-dose aprotinin, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, or saline placebo. Plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured at 5 time points before, during, and after extracorporeal circulation. In all 3 groups, both IL-6 and IL-10 rose significantly after institution of extracorporeal circulation and remained elevated through the first postoperative day. Compared with saline, aprotinin significantly reduced IL-10 (P=0.02) and peak IL-6 (P=0.02) after extracorporeal circulation. In contrast, none of the reductions in IL-6 and IL-10 by epsilon-aminocaproic acid achieved statistical significance. Both aprotinin and epsilon-aminocaproic acid decreased blood loss compared with saline, but there was no significant difference in the number of patients receiving blood products among the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that aprotinin and epsilon-aminocaproic acid differ in their effects on the inflammatory response to extracorporeal circulation. Aprotinin but not epsilon-aminocaproic acid appears to attenuate the rise in the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10. Further studies will be required to determine if these cytokine alterations translate to changes in clinical outcomes.  (+info)

Plasma levels of plasmin-antiplasmin-complexes are predictive for small abdominal aortic aneurysms expanding to operation-recommendable sizes. (34/402)

OBJECTIVE: Three proteolytic systems seem involved in the aneurysmal degradation of the aortic wall. Plasmin is a common activator of the systems and could thus be predictive for the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). METHODS AND MATERIALS: In 1994, 112 of 141 male patients with AAA diagnosed through population screening (defined as 3 cm or more) were interviewed and examined and had blood samples taken. One hundred twelve cases were scanned annually for 1 to 5 years (mean, 2.5 years) and referred for surgery if the AAA exceeded 5 cm in diameter. A random sample of 70 of the 112 cases had P-plasmin-antiplasmin-complexes (PAPs), P-plasminogen, and S-elastin-peptides (SEPs). RESULTS: PAP was positively correlated with annual expansion rate (r = 0.39, 0.16-0.56), persisting after adjustment for initial AAA size, SEP, age, and smoking. However, PAP levels did not correlate with the initial AAA size or SEP. Furthermore, PAP levels were significantly predictive for cases expanding to operation-recommendable AAA sizes. Combined with the initial AAA size, both optimal sensitivity and specificity were 82%, increasing to 95% and 96%, respectively, excluding those lost to follow-up and accepting 2 mm of interobserver variation. CONCLUSION: The progression of AAA is correlated with the PAP level, which seems to have a predictive value similar to the best serologic predictor known, serum-elastin-peptides.  (+info)

Point-of-care testing for prothrombin time, but not activated partial thromboplastin time, correlates with laboratory methods in patients receiving aprotinin or epsilon-aminocaproic acid while undergoing cardiac surgery. (35/402)

Point-of-care testing (POCT) of coagulation parameters can help optimize transfusion practice in cardiac surgery. Antifibrinolytic agents may interfere with the laboratory and/or POCT coagulation assays. This randomized controlled study compared coagulation parameters obtained from a whole blood POCT coagulation device with a typical laboratory instrument in cardiac surgery patients receiving aprotinin, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, or normal saline before undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Aliquots of arterial blood samples from 42 patients were collected perioperatively, and their prothrombin times (PTs) and activated partial thromboplastin times (aPTTs) were measured by POCT and laboratory instrumentation. Linear regression and error analyses were used for the method comparison. For PT, the POCT device compared favorably with the laboratory method. For aPTT, the POCT device did not compare well with the laboratory method. Treatment with antifibrinolytic agents does not interfere with determination of PT.  (+info)

Menadione-induced apoptosis: roles of cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. (36/402)

In normal pancreatic acinar cells, the oxidant menadione evokes repetitive cytosolic Ca(2+) spikes, partial mitochondrial depolarisation, cytochrome c release and apoptosis. The physiological agonists acetylcholine and cholecystokinin also evoke cytosolic Ca(2+) spikes but do not depolarise mitochondria and fail to induce apoptosis. Ca(2+) spikes induced by low agonist concentrations are confined to the apical secretory pole of the cell by the buffering action of perigranular mitochondria. Menadione prevents mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, which permits rapid spread of Ca(2+) throughout the cell. Menadione-induced mitochondrial depolarisation is due to induction of the permeability transition pore. Blockade of the permeability transition pore with bongkrekic acid prevents activation of caspase 9 and 3. In contrast, the combination of antimycin A and acetylcholine does not cause apoptosis but elicits a global cytosolic Ca(2+) rise and mitochondrial depolarisation without induction of the permeability transition pore. Increasing the cytosolic Ca(2+) buffering power by BAPTA prevents cytosolic Ca(2+) spiking, blocks the menadione-elicited mitochondrial depolarisation and blocks menadione-induced apoptosis. These results suggest a twin-track model in which both intracellular release of Ca(2+) and induction of the permeability transition pore are required for initiation of apoptosis.  (+info)

Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumour volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer. (37/402)

Plasma levels of D-dimer are elevated in cancer patients. Activation of the extrinsic coagulation system and the fibrinolytic cascade within a tumour is thought to be related with growth, invasion and metastasis. We have investigated the relationship between these markers of fibrin metabolism, standard clinicopathological variables and serum levels of angiogenic cytokines in three cohorts: group A (n=30) consisted of 30 healthy female volunteers, group B (n=23) of consecutive patients with operable breast cancer and group C (n=84) of patients with untreated or progressive metastatic breast cancer. Plasma D-dimers, fibrinogen, IL-6, vascular endothelial growth factor and calculated vascular endothelial growth factor load in platelets are clearly increased in patients with breast cancer. D-dimers were increased in nearly 89% of patients with progressive metastatic disease. The level of D-dimers was positively correlated with tumour load (P<0.0001), number of metastatic sites (P=0.002), progression kinetics (P<0.0001) and the cytokines related to angiogenesis: serum vascular endothelial growth factor (P=0.0016, Spearman correlation=0.285), calculated vascular endothelial growth factor load in platelets (P<0.0001, Spearman correlation=0.37) and serum interleukin-6 (P<0.0001, Spearman correlation=0.59). Similarly increased D-dimer levels were positively correlated with increased fibrinogen levels (P<0.0001, Spearman correlation=0.38). The association between markers of fibrin degradation in patients with progressive breast cancer suggests that the D-dimer level is a clinically important marker for progression and points towards a relation between haemostasis and tumour progression. A role of interleukin-6, by influencing both angiogenesis and haemostasis, is suggested by these observations.  (+info)

Tranexamic acid, a widely used antifibrinolytic agent, causes convulsions by a gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor antagonistic effect. (38/402)

Application of 4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (tranexamic acid; TAMCA) to the central nervous system (CNS) has been shown to result in hyperexcitability and convulsions. However, the mechanisms underlying this action are unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that TAMCA binds to the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding site of GABA(A) receptors in membranes from rat cerebral cortex and does not interfere with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Patch-clamp studies using human embryonic kidney cells transiently transfected with recombinant GABA(A) receptors composed of alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 subunits showed that TAMCA did not activate these receptors but dose dependently blocked GABA-induced chloride ion flux with an IC(50) of 7.1 +/- 3.1 mM. Application of TAMCA to the lumbar spinal cord of rats resulted in dose-dependent hyperexcitability, which was completely blocked by coapplication of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol. These results indicate that TAMCA may induce hyperexcitability by blocking GABA-driven inhibition of the CNS.  (+info)

Enhanced antiplasmin activity in acute renal failure. (39/402)

Plasmatic slow plasmin-inhibitor activity was assessed in 20 patients with acute renal failure and 12 controls with the fibrin plate method. The area of fibrinolysis was 250-5 +/- 5 mm2 in the patients and 289 +/- 6mm2 in the controls (P less than 0.001) and was negatively correlated with antiplasmin activity. Thirteen patients had areas of lysis equal to or inferior to the minimal lysis observed in the controls. No correlation was found between antiplasmin activity and serum fibrin-fibrinogen related antigen titres, the presence or absence of disseminated intravascular coagulation, or the causative disease.  (+info)

Grx5 is a mitochondrial glutaredoxin required for the activity of iron/sulfur enzymes. (40/402)

Yeast cells contain a family of three monothiol glutaredoxins: Grx3, 4, and 5. Absence of Grx5 leads to constitutive oxidative damage, exacerbating that caused by external oxidants. Phenotypic defects associated with the absence of Grx5 are suppressed by overexpression of SSQ1 and ISA2, two genes involved in the synthesis and assembly of iron/sulfur clusters into proteins. Grx5 localizes at the mitochondrial matrix, like other proteins involved in the synthesis of these clusters, and the mature form lacks the first 29 amino acids of the translation product. Absence of Grx5 causes: 1) iron accumulation in the cell, which in turn could promote oxidative damage, and 2) inactivation of enzymes requiring iron/sulfur clusters for their activity. Reduction of iron levels in grx5 null mutants does not restore the activity of iron/sulfur enzymes, and cell growth defects are not suppressed in anaerobiosis or in the presence of disulfide reductants. Hence, Grx5 forms part of the mitochondrial machinery involved in the synthesis and assembly of iron/sulfur centers.  (+info)