The mechanism of a bacterial plasminogen activator intermediate between streptokinase and staphylokinase. (25/402)

The therapeutic properties of plasminogen activators are dictated by their mechanism of action. Unlike staphylokinase, a single domain protein, streptokinase, a 3-domain (alpha, beta, and gamma) molecule, nonproteolytically activates human (h)-plasminogen and protects plasmin from inactivation by alpha(2)-antiplasmin. Because a streptokinase-like mechanism was hypothesized to require the streptokinase gamma-domain, we examined the mechanism of action of a novel two-domain (alpha,beta) Streptococcus uberis plasminogen activator (SUPA). Under conditions that quench trace plasmin, SUPA nonproteolytically generated an active site in bovine (b)-plasminogen. SUPA also competitively inhibited the inactivation of plasmin by alpha(2)-antiplasmin. Still, the lag phase in active site generation and plasminogen activation by SUPA was at least 5-fold longer than that of streptokinase. Recombinant streptokinase gamma-domain bound to the b-plasminogen.SUPA complex and significantly reduced these lag phases. The SUPA-b.plasmin complex activated b-plasminogen with kinetic parameters comparable to those of streptokinase for h-plasminogen. The SUPA-b.plasmin complex also activated h-plasminogen but with a lower k(cat) (25-fold) and k(cat)/K(m) (7.9-fold) than SK. We conclude that a gamma-domain is not required for a streptokinase-like activation of b-plasminogen. However, the streptokinase gamma-domain enhances the rates of active site formation in b-plasminogen and this enhancing effect may be required for efficient activation of plasminogen from other species.  (+info)

Hemostatic activation in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. (26/402)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is no in-depth information available on the changes in hemostatic systems in patients in the acute phase of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study was conducted to assess the relationships between the changes in hemostatic systems and clinical parameters in patients in acute-phase ICH. METHODS: The records of 358 patients admitted within 6 hours of onset of ICH were reviewed to examine the relationships between changes in hemostatic systems and computed tomographic findings and clinical parameters. RESULTS: -The white blood cell counts and the levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex, plasmin-antiplasmin complex, and D-dimer in patients with intraventricular extension (IVE) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in patients without IVE or SAH. Most of the hemostatic system parameters in patients without IVE or SAH showed no significant differences compared with normal subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex significantly increased with an increase in the amount of SAH (P<0.001) and IVE (P<0.001). The levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex were not significantly associated with the volume of intraparenchymal hematoma. The level of the complex, however, was significantly (P<0.001) and independently associated with the presence of IVE or SAH (multiple logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: The systemic activation of hemostatic systems in ICH patients seems to take place only when blood reaches the subarachnoid space. The intraparenchymal hematoma itself seems unlikely to activate hemostatic systems in peripheral blood, although the hematoma is expected to cause local activation of hemostatic systems.  (+info)

A possible role of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in disturbances of fibrinolytic system in renal transplant recipients. (27/402)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Suppression of fibrinolysis plays a role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Accelerated progression of atherosclerosis and fibrinolytic system suppression has been observed in RTR. Despite many years of intensive research, the reason for impaired fibrinolysis in this patient population is not fully understood. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a recently discovered glycoprotein combining coagulation and fibrinolysis. This study was conducted to evaluate concentrations of TAFI, markers of thrombin generation, endothelial injury, and some standard laboratory parameters in RTR receiving triple immunosuppressive drug regimen. METHODS: The study was performed in 29 stable, non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients treated with cyclosporin A, azathioprine, and prednisone and in 18 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), prothrombin fragments F1+2 (F1+2), thrombin--antithrombin complexes (TAT), plasmin--antiplasmin complexes (PAP), and TAFI were measured with commercially available kits. RESULTS: The RTR group had significantly higher plasma levels of TAT, F1+2, sTM and TAFI than the healthy volunteers. There were no differences in PAP concentrations between the two groups. Plasma sTM correlated inversely with creatinine clearance, body mass index, haemoglobin, and albumin. Plasma TAT level was positively associated with total cholesterol. TAFI antigen influenced negatively PAP antigen concentration. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our research, we concluded that elevated circulating TAFI antigen might be a new link in the pathogenesis of impaired fibrinolysis in RTR, and thus atherosclerosis progression. In the patient group there is also evidence of endothelial injury, followed by secondary activation of the coagulation cascade. Hypercholesterolaemia in RTR is associated with enhanced thrombin activity.  (+info)

Antifibrinolytic effect of single apo(a) kringle domains: relationship to fibrinogen binding. (28/402)

Elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are associated with an increased risk for the development of atherosclerotic disease which may be attributable to the ability of Lp(a) to attenuate fibrinolysis. A generally accepted mechanism for this effect involves direct competition of Lp(a) with plasminogen for fibrin(ogen) binding sites thus reducing the efficiency of plasminogen activation. Efforts to determine the domains of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] which mediate fibrin(ogen) interactions have yielded conflicting results. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of single KIV domains of apo(a) to bind plasmin-treated fibrinogen surfaces as well to determine their effect on fibrinolysis using an in vitro clot lysis assay. A bacterial expression system was utilized to express and purify apo(a) KIV (2), KIV (7), KIV (9) DeltaCys (which lacks the seventh unpaired cysteine) and KIV (10) which contains a strong lysine binding site. We also expressed and examined three mutant derivatives of KIV (10) to determine the effect of changing critical residues in the lysine binding site of this kringle on both fibrin(ogen) binding and fibrin clot lysis. Our results demonstrate that the strong lysine binding site in apo(a) KIV (10) is capable of mediating interactions with plasmin-modified fibrinogen in a lysine-dependent manner, and that this kringle can increase in vitro fibrin clot lysis time by approximately 43% at a concentration of 10 microM KIV (10). The ability of the KIV (10) mutant derivatives to bind plasmin-modified fibrinogen correlated with their lysine binding capacity. Mutation of Trp (70) to Arg abolished binding to both lysine-Sepharose and plasmin-modified fibrinogen, while the Trp (70) -->Phe and Arg (35) -->Lys substitutions each resulted in decreased binding to these substrates. None of the KIV (10) mutant derivatives appeared to affect fibrinolysis. Apo(a) KIV (7) contains a lysine- and proline-sensitive site capable of mediating binding to plasmin-modified fibrinogen, albeit with a lower apparent affinity than apo(a) KIV (10). However, apo(a) KIV (7) had no effect on fibrinolysis in vitro. Apo(a) KIV (2) and KIV (9) DeltaCys did not bind measurably to plasmin-modified fibrinogen surfaces and did not affect fibrinolysis in vitro.  (+info)

Economics of low-molecular weight heparins. (29/402)

Low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) have become attractive alternatives to standard unfractionated heparin (UFH) for the treatment and prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and for the management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The economic impact of the use of LMWHs has been studied in randomized controlled studies, in demonstration projects in managed care institutions, and in decision models. These studies provide valuable insight into the ways LMWHs can be economically attractive despite higher per unit costs compared with UFH. For the treatment of DVT, the cost benefit of using LMWHs results primarily from the cost shifting from inpatient to outpatient care, and might be limited by the eligibility of patients for outpatient management. In contrast, the attractiveness of LMWHs for ACS and DVT prophylaxis hinges on the increased effectiveness of LMWHs compared with standard UFH.  (+info)

Effect of epsilon-aminocaproylaminoacids on the activity of proteolytic enzymes. (30/402)

Effect of three epsilon-aminocaproylaminoacids with significant antifibrinolytic activity on chymotrypsin, trypsin, cathepsin B, cathepsin C and cathepsin D activities was examined. Slight inhibition of trypsin and chymotrypsin activity was observed only at high concentrations of these compounds. All tested dipeptides did not influence activities of cathepsin B, cathepsin C and cathepsin D.  (+info)

Drug treatments in upper gastrointestinal bleeding: value of endoscopic findings as surrogate end points. (31/402)

INTRODUCTION: Pharmacotherapy for upper gastrointestinal bleeding has been difficult to evaluate because clinical end points are infrequent and affected by other factors. AIMS: To evaluate whether blood in the stomach at endoscopy reflected severity of bleeding, predicted clinical outcomes, and could be altered by therapeutic agents. METHODS: We studied 414 consecutive admissions with suspected upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients were randomised to receive lansoprazole 60 mg followed by 30 mg four times daily, tranexamic acid 2 g followed by 1 g four times daily, both drugs, or placebo for four days, until discharge or a clinical end point occurred. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of endoscopic changes and clinical outcomes, and to investigate the effects of drug treatments on blood in the stomach. RESULTS: Of 414 patients with suspected upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 379 were endoscoped. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding was confirmed in 316. Sixteen required surgery within 30 days and 16 died on the index admission. Trial treatments were evaluable on a per protocol basis in 228 patients. The amount of blood in the stomach was found to reflect initial risk, with significant associations with high risk categorisation (odds ratio 3.7 (95% confidence interval 1.5-9.4) for more than a trace v none/trace), age (1.5 (1.1-1.9) per decade), and initial pulse (1.02 (1.00-1.04) per beat), and to predict rebleeding (9.2 (4.6-18.7)) and surgery (8.2 (2.9-22.9)). Other stigmata were less significant in these respects. The amount of blood in the stomach at endoscopy was reduced significantly by both lansoprazole (0.22 (0.07-0.63)) and tranexamic acid (0.27 (0.09-0.81)), although there was no evidence of synergy. CONCLUSIONS: Blood in the stomach reflects clinical features in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is reduced by treatment with lansoprazole and tranexamic acid.  (+info)

Domain and genomic sequence analysis of bdellin-KL, a leech-derived trypsin-plasmin inhibitor. (32/402)

Bdellin-KL is a trypsin-plasmin inhibitor from Hirudo nipponia, whose N-terminal sequence was identified as a non-classical Kazal-type. A cDNA clone encoding the inhibitor was isolated by reverse transcription-PCR and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cDNA showed an open reading frame of 155 amino acids comprising one signal peptide and two separated domains. The C-terminal domain consists of distinct internal repeats, including HHEE and HHDD. The bdellin-KL sequence, from the constructed genomic library of Korean leech, was determined for the 2109 bases comprising the open reading frame and flanking regions (3' and 5'). The promoter region contains potential regulatory sequence motifs, including TATA, CAAT, and GC boxes. To characterize the properties of each domain, an N-terminal fragment was prepared by limited proteolysis of the intact protein. The inhibitory activity of the region was as potent as that of the intact protein. This suggests that the compact domain plays an important part in the inhibitory action of bdellin-KL. The C-terminal domain was revealed to have binding affinity to ions such as Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), and Fe(2+) without an influence on the inhibitory activity. This study demonstrates that bdellin-KL may be a novel bifunctional protein with two distinct domains.  (+info)