Cyanide poisoning: pathophysiology and treatment recommendations.
This paper aims to assess and compare currently available antidotes for cyanide poisoning. Such evaluation, however, is difficult. Thus, extrapolation from the results of animal studies has potential pitfalls, as significant inter-species differences in response may exist, and these experiments often involve administration of toxin and antidote almost simultaneously, rather than incorporating a more realistic time delay before initiation of treatment. Direct inference from human case reports is also problematic; either because of uncertainties over the exposure levels involved (and hence the likely outcome without treatment), or because of difficulties in identifying the specific contribution of a particular antidote within the overall treatment regimen. Certainly an effort to compare the relative efficacy of cyanide antidotes produces equivocal findings, with no single regimen clearly standing out. Indeed, factors such as the risks of antidote toxicity to various individuals and other practical issues, may be more important considerations. There is therefore no single treatment regimen which is best for all situations. Besides individual risk factors for antidote toxicity, the nature of the exposure and hence its likely severity, the evolving clinical features and the number of persons involved and their proximity to hospital facilities, all need to be considered. Clinically mild poisoning may be treated by rest, oxygen and amyl nitrite. Intravenous antidotes are indicated for moderate poisoning. Where the diagnosis is uncertain, sodium thiosulphate may be the first choice. With severe poisoning, an additional agent is required. Given the various risks with methaemoglobin formers or with unselective use of kelocyanor, hydroxocobalamin may be preferred from a purely risk-benefit perspective. However the former alternatives will likely remain important. (+info)
Fomepizole for the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning. Methylpyrazole for Toxic Alcohols Study Group.
BACKGROUND: Ethylene glycol poisoning causes metabolic acidosis and renal failure and may cause death. The standard treatment is inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol, given in intoxicating doses, and adjunctive hemodialysis. We studied the efficacy of fomepizole, a new inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, in the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning. METHODS: We administered intravenous fomepizole to 19 patients with ethylene glycol poisoning (plasma ethylene glycol concentration, > or =20 mg per deciliter [3.2 mmol per liter]). Patients who met specific criteria also underwent hemodialysis. Treatment was continued until plasma ethylene glycol concentrations were less than 20 mg per deciliter. Acid-base status, renal function, the kinetics of fomepizole, and ethylene glycol metabolism were assessed at predetermined intervals. RESULTS: Fifteen of the patients initially had acidosis (mean serum bicarbonate concentration, 12.9 mmol per liter). Acid-base status tended to normalize within hours after the initiation of treatment with fomepizole. One patient with extreme acidosis died. In nine patients, renal function decreased during therapy; at enrollment, all nine had high serum creatinine concentrations and markedly elevated plasma glycolate concentrations (> or =97.7 mg per deciliter [12.9 mmol per liter]). None of the 10 patients with normal serum creatinine concentrations at enrollment had renal injury during treatment; all 10 had plasma glycolate concentrations at or below 76.8 mg per deciliter (10.1 mmol per liter). Renal injury was independent of the initial plasma ethylene glycol concentration. The plasma concentration of glycolate and the urinary excretion of oxalate, the major metabolites of ethylene glycol, uniformly fell after the initiation of fomepizole therapy. Few adverse effects were attributable to fomepizole. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ethylene glycol poisoning, fomepizole administered early in the course of intoxication prevents renal injury by inhibiting the formation of toxic metabolites. (+info)
Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human lung fibroblasts: protective roles of glutathione.
Although reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related cell damage has been implicated in pathogenesis of fibrogenetic pulmonary disorders, features of ROS-mediated cell death in human lung fibroblasts are not completely understood. We therefore examined the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on cell growth kinetics in human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1 cells) and tested the roles of antioxidants on the H2O2-induced cell death (i.e., necrosis and apoptosis) in HFL-1 cells. We found that the relatively low concentrations of H2O2 ranging from 10 microM to 100 microM induced predominantly apoptosis, whereas higher concentration of H2O2 ranging 1 mM-10 mM induced predominantly necrosis in HFL-1 cells. Extracellular supplementation of glutathione (GSH) in culture media significantly abolished the H2O2-induced cell death, whereas GSH-depleted cells by pretreatment with buthionine sulfoxime (BSO) were likely to undergo cell death caused by a lower concentration of H2O2 than normal HFL-1 cells without BSO treatment. These results indicate that H2O2 induces both necrosis and apoptosis of human lung fibroblasts at least in part through the action of ROS and that modulation of the ROS production inside and outside of cells may influence the cell survival during oxidative insults. (+info)
Gestational trophoblastic disease: does central nervous system chemoprophylaxis have a role?
In the UK there are standardized surveillance procedures for gestational trophoblastic disease. However, there are differences in practice between the two treatment centres in terms of definition of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease, prognostic risk assessment and chemotherapeutic regimens. The role of prophylactic chemotherapy for cerebral micrometastatic disease in persistent gestational trophoblastic disease is unclear. We have analysed the outcome of 69 patients with lung metastases who elsewhere might have received prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy. Of the 69 patients, 67 received intravenous chemotherapy only. The other two patients had cerebral metastases at presentation. One patient who received only intravenous chemotherapy subsequently developed a cerebral metastasis, but this patient's initial treatment was compromised by non-compliance. This experience supports our current policy of not treating patients with pulmonary metastases, without clinical evidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, with prophylactic intrathecal therapy. (+info)
The presentation and management of post-partum choriocarcinoma.
Post-partum choriocarcinoma is a rare complication of pregnancy. We have analysed a series of nine consecutive patients presenting with choriocarcinoma after a full-term non-molar pregnancy. All patients were managed at the Supraregional Trophoblastic Disease Screening and Treatment Centre at Weston Park Hospital, Sheffield between 1987 and 1996. All presented with persistent primary or secondary post-partum haemorrhage. Treatment with multiagent chemotherapy (initially methotrexate, dactinomycin and etoposide) was successful in all cases. Early diagnosis is important because this rare condition is potentially curable with appropriate chemotherapy. (+info)
Gastric decontamination--a view for the millennium.
The management of acute poisoning remains an important part of accident and emergency (A&E) care. Three gastric decontamination procedures have been widely used: gastric lavage, ipecac, and activated charcoal. Their role has recently been reviewed and position statements developed by working groups of the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. These have important implications for A&E, as they indicate that activated charcoal is now the agent of choice for most poisons, but than in most situations it is probably only effective if given within an hour of overdose. Ipecac is effectively obsolete and gastric lavage has a narrow range of indications, principally for potentially serious amounts of agents not adsorbed by charcoal. Protocols for care of overdose patients should be modified accordingly. (+info)
Comparative efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with Dukes' B versus Dukes' C colon cancer: results from four National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project adjuvant studies (C-01, C-02, C-03, and C-04)
PURPOSE: Although the benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy has been clearly established in patients with Dukes' C colon cancer, such benefit has been questioned in patients with Dukes' B disease. To determine whether patients with Dukes' B disease benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy and to evaluate the magnitude of the benefit, compared with that observed in Dukes' C patients, we examined the relative efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy according to Dukes' stage in four sequential National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trials (C-01, C-02, C-03, and C-04) that compared different adjuvant chemotherapy regimens with each other or with no adjuvant treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The four trials included Dukes' B and C patients and were conducted between 1977 and 1990. The eligibility criteria and follow-up requirements were similar for all four trials. Protocol C-01 compared adjuvant semustine, vincristine, and fluorouracil (5-FU) (MOF regimen) with operation alone. Protocol C-02 compared the perioperative administration of a portal venous infusion of 5-FU with operation alone. Protocol C-03 compared adjuvant 5-FU and leucovorin (LV) with adjuvant MOF. Protocol C-04 compared adjuvant 5-FU and LV with 5-FU and levamisole (LEV) and with the combination of 5-FU, LV, and LEV. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of the patients included in these four trials had resected Dukes' B tumors. In all four studies, the overall, disease-free, and recurrence-free survival improvement noted for all patients was evident in both Dukes' B and Dukes' C patients. When the relative efficacy of chemotherapy was examined, there was always an observed reduction in mortality, recurrence, or disease-free survival event, irrespective of Dukes' stage, and in most instances, the reduction was as great or greater for Dukes' B patients as for Dukes' C patients. When data from all four trials were examined in a combined analysis, the mortality reduction was 30% for Dukes' B patients versus 18% for Dukes' C patients. The mortality reduction in Dukes' B patients occurred irrespective of the presence or absence of adverse prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Patients with Dukes' B colon cancer benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy and should be presented with this treatment option. Regardless of the presence or absence of other clinical prognostic factors, Dukes' B patients seem to benefit from chemotherapy administration. (+info)
Efficacy of adjuvant fluorouracil and folinic acid in B2 colon cancer. International Multicentre Pooled Analysis of B2 Colon Cancer Trials (IMPACT B2) Investigators.
PURPOSE: The goal of this analysis was to determine whether fluorouracil (FU) and folinic acid (leucovorin, LV) is an effective adjuvant therapy for patients after potentially curative resection of colon cancer in patients with B2 tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One thousand sixteen patients with B2 colon cancer entered onto five separate trials were randomized to FU + LV or observation. A pooled analysis for event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) using a stratified log-rank and Cox model was performed. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 5.75 years. Patients receiving FU + LV did not experience a significant increase in EFS or OS. The hazards ratio at 5 years was 0.83 (90% confidence interval, 0.72 to 1.07) for EFS and 0.86 (90% confidence interval, 0.68 to 1.07) for OS. The 5-year EFS was 73% for controls and 76% for FU + LV. The 5-year OS was 80% for controls and 82% for FU + LV. Increasing age and poorly differentiated tumors were significant indicators of poor prognosis (P < .02). CONCLUSION: This data set does not support the routine use of FU + LV in all patients with B2 colon cancer. Longer follow-up may identify a small benefit. At present, studies in B2 colon cancer designed with a no-treatment control arm should be considered appropriate. (+info)