Antagonistic effects of trifluoperazine, imipramine, and chlorpromazine against acetylcholine-induced contractions in isolated rat uterus.
AIM: To examine the effects and affinity of some phenothizines (trifluoperazine, Tri and chlorpromazine, Chl) and antidepressant (imipramine, Imi) drugs on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced uterine contraction. METHODS: Isotonic contractions of rat uterine strips were recorded. ACh was administrated to induce maximal contraction before exchange of nutrient solution. ACh was added 5 min after the testing drugs. The nutrient solution was exchanged 4 times after each agonist (ACh or other agents) to produce maximal contraction. RESULTS: Atropine (Atr, 0.029-2.9 mumol.L-1), 4-DAMP (3.6-360 nmol.L-1), pirenzepine (Pir, 0.23-23.5 mumol.L-1), and AF-DX 116 (0.7-35.6 mumol.L-1) competitively antagonized the muscular uterine concentration induced by ACh (0.068-36068 mumol.L-1). The Schild plot was linear (r = 1.00). The pKB and slopes values (95% confidence limits) were 9.28 +/- 0.12 and 1.00 +/- 0.10 to Atr, 9.06 +/- 0.10 and 1.10 +/- 0.08 to 4-DAMP, 7.03 +/- 0.15 and 0.99 +/- 0.12 to Pir, and 5.60 +/- 0.08 and 1.00 +/- 0.19 to AF-DX 116. Tri 0.01-2 mumol.L-1 (pKB = 8.39 +/- 0.04) and Imi 94-940 nmol.L-1 (pKB = 7.21 +/- 0.10) produced also a competitive antagonism of the muscular uterine contraction induced by ACh (r = 1.00), but the slope was only 0.60 +/- 0.03 to Tri or 0.83 +/- 0.16 to Imi. Chl 2.8-5.6 mumol.L-1 produced a weak antagonism on amplitude of muscular contraction induced by the cholinomimetic. CONCLUSION: The muscarinic receptors on uterus behaved as M3 subtype. Tri and Imi, but not Chl, were competitive antagonist of muscarinic receptors of uterus. Imi behaved a simple competitive antagonist at a single site on myometrium, but Tri was not a simple competitive agent at a single site. (+info)
The novel analgesic compound OT-7100 (5-n-butyl-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoylamino)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimid ine) attenuates mechanical nociceptive responses in animal models of acute and peripheral neuropathic hyperalgesia.
We investigated the effects of OT-7100, a novel analgesic compound (5-n-butyl-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoylamino)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidi ne), on prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis in vitro, acute hyperalgesia induced by yeast and substance P in rats and hyperalgesia in rats with a chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (Bennett model), which is a model for peripheral neuropathic pain. OT-7100 did not inhibit prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis at 10(-8)-10(-4) M. Single oral doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg OT-7100 were effective on the hyperalgesia induced by yeast. Single oral doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg OT-7100 were effective on the hyperalgesia induced by substance P in which indomethacin had no effect. Repeated oral administration of OT-7100 (10 and 30 mg/kg) was effective in normalizing the mechanical nociceptive threshold in the injured paw without affecting the nociceptive threshold in the uninjured paw in the Bennett model. Indomethacin had no effect in this model. While amitriptyline (10 and 30 mg/kg) and clonazepam (3 and 10 mg/kg) significantly normalized the nociceptive threshold in the injured paw, they also increased the nociceptive threshold in the uninjured paw. These results suggest that OT-7100 is a new type of analgesic with the effect of normalizing the nociceptive threshold in peripheral neuropathic hyperalgesia. (+info)
Negative immunoregulatory effects of antidepressants: inhibition of interferon-gamma and stimulation of interleukin-10 secretion.
There is now some evidence that major depression is accompanied by activation of the inflammatory response system. There is also some evidence that antidepressants may suppress the release of cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 by activated monocytes and IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) by activated T cells. This study was carried out to examine the effects of clomipramine, sertraline, and trazodone on the stimulated production of IFN gamma, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and IL-10, a negative immunoregulatory cytokine. Whole blood of nine healthy volunteers was stimulated with PHA, 5 micrograms/mL and LPS, 25 micrograms/mL for 72 hr with and without incubation with clomipramine, 10(-6) and 10(-9) M, sertraline, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M, and trazodone, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M. All three antidepressants significantly reduced IFN gamma secretion, whereas clomipramine and sertraline significantly increased IL-10 secretion in culture supernatant. All three antidepressants significantly reduced the IFN gamma/IL-10 ratio. The results suggest that antidepressants, at concentrations in the therapeutical range, have negative immunoregulatory effects through inhibition of IFN gamma and stimulation of IL-10 release. (+info)
Antidepressant blood levels in acute overdose.
Plasma antidepressant levels and clinical condition were measured sequentially for at least 24 hr in eight patients who presented with acute antidepressant overdosage. There was no evidence to suggest that a knowledge of the drug plasma levels had anything to offer in the management of a patient whose overdose included a tricyclic antidepressant. (+info)
Effectiveness and economic impact of antidepressant medications: a review.
This article reviews the existing literature on the pharmacoeconomics and effectiveness of antidepressant medications. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have not proved to be more efficacious than the older tricyclics, and their prescription costs are significantly higher, they provide superior effectiveness; ie, patients are less likely to discontinue taking them or switch antidepressants. Pharmacoeconomic studies consistently demonstrate a relationship between this superior effectiveness and reductions in overall treatment costs, often through decreased utilization of medical and hospital services. The most conservative study found a cost offset that more than negated the extra cost of drugs, although the cost savings were not statistically significant. Other studies found statistically significant lowering of utilization costs by using SSRIs rather than tricyclics. Studies comparing SSRIs with each other present conflicting findings, although fluoxetine appears to have an edge over sertraline and paroxetine with regards to effectiveness and pharmacoeconomics. More studies employing a prospective outcome design and naturalistic study setting need to be conducted with SSRIs and other new antidepressants. (+info)
Course of antidepressant treatment with tricyclic versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor agents: a comparison in managed care and fee-for-service environments.
We compared course of treatment with tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCADs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to assess interactive effects of antidepressant type with payer type and patient characteristics. A nationwide sampling of adults (n = 4,252) from approximately equal numbers of health maintenance organization (HMO) and indemnity enrollees were prescribed no antidepressants for 9 months, and thereafter prescribed a TCAD or SSRI. Using a retrospective analysis of prescription claims, these cohorts of TCAD and SSRI utilizers were followed for 13 to 16 months after their initial antidepressant prescription. Outcome measures included (1) termination of antidepressant treatment before 1 month; and (2) failure to receive at least one therapeutic dose during treatment lasting 3 months or more. Rates of premature termination and subtherapeutic dosing were significantly higher for TCAD-treated than SSRI-treated patients, and for HMO than indemnity enrollees. The interaction of HMO enrollment and TCAD use was associated with particularly high rates. Excluding patients terminating in the first month, the proportions of TCAD and SSRI utilizers remaining in treatment over time were not significantly different. We conclude that SSRIs may provide advantages in treatment adherence and therapeutic dosing, particularly in environments with limited prescriber time. The first month of treatment may be especially critical in determining compliance. (+info)
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterization of OROS and immediate-release amitriptyline.
AIMS: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline and its metabolite nortriptyline following OROS and IR treatments, and to correlate them with anticholinergic side-effects. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics and safety of amitriptyline following administration of an osmotic controlled release tablet (OROS and an immediate release (IR) tablet were evaluated in 14 healthy subjects. In this randomized, open label, three-way crossover feasibility study, the subjects received a single 75 mg OROS tablet, three 25 mg IR tablets administered every 8 h, or 3x25 mg IR tablets administered at nighttime. In each treatment arm serial blood samples were collected for a period of 84 h after dosing. The plasma samples were analysed by gas chromatography for amitriptyline and its metabolite nortriptyline. Anticholinergic effects such as saliva output, visual acuity, and subject-rated drowsiness and dry mouth were measured on a continuous scale during each treatment period. RESULTS: Following dosing with OROS (amitriptyline hydrochloride), the mean maximal plasma amitriptyline concentration Cmax (15.3 ng ml-1 ) was lower and the mean tmax (25.7 h) was longer than that associated with the equivalent IR dose administered at nighttime (26.8 ng ml-1 and 6.3 h, respectively). The bioavailability of amitriptyline following OROS dosing was 95% relative to IR every 8 h dosing, and 89% relative to IR nighttime dosing. The metabolite-to-drug ratios after the three treatment periods were similar, suggesting no change in metabolism between treatments. The relationships between plasma amitriptyline concentration and anticholinergic effects (e.g. reduced saliva weight, dry mouth, and drowsiness) were similar with all three treatments. Of the anticholinergic effects, only decreased saliva weight and dry mouth correlated well with plasma amitriptyline concentrations; drowsiness did not. There was no apparent correlation between anticholinergic effects and the plasma nortriptyline concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The bioavailability of OROS (amitriptyline hydrochloride) was similar to that of the IR treatments and the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline after OROS dosing may decrease the incidence of anticholinergic effects compared with that seen with nighttime dosing of the IR formulation. Therefore, this controlled-release formulation of amitriptyline may be appropriate for single daily administration. (+info)
Relaxant effects of antidepressants on human isolated mesenteric arteries.
AIMS: The therapeutic action of tricyclic agents may be accompanied by unwanted effects on the cardiovascular system. The evidence for the effects on vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle comes from animal studies. Whether these studies can be extrapolated to human vessels remains to be determined. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the influence of amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline on the contractile responses of human isolated mesenteric arteries to electrical field stimulation, noradrenaline and potassium chloride. METHODS: Arterial segments (lumen diameter 0.8-1.2 mm) were obtained from portions of the human omentum during the course of 41 abdominal operations (22 men and 19 women), and rings 3 mm long were mounted in organ baths for isometric recording of tension. In some artery rings the endothelium was removed mechanically. RESULTS: In precontracted artery rings amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline (3x10(-7)-10(-4) m ) produced concentration-dependent relaxation that was independent of the presence or absence of vascular endothelium. Incubation with indomethacin (3x10(-6) m ) reduced the pD2 values thus indicating the participation of dilating prostanoid substances in this response. Amitriptyline and nortriptyline inhibited both the neurogenic-and noradrenaline-induced contractions. In contrast, only the highest concentration of sertraline reduced the adrenergic responses. Amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline inhibited contractions elicited by KCl and produced rightward shifts of the concentration-response curve to CaCl2 following incubation in calcium-free solution. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that amitriptyline and nortriptyline could act as adrenoceptor antagonists and direct inhibitors of smooth muscle contraction of human mesenteric arteries, whereas sertraline might principally exert its action only as direct inhibitor of smooth muscle contraction. This relaxant mechanism involves an interference with the entry of calcium. (+info)