A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Use of nicotine-replacement therapies and the antidepressant bupropion helps people stop smoking. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sustained-release bupropion (244 subjects), a nicotine patch (244 subjects), bupropion and a nicotine patch (245 subjects), and placebo (160 subjects) for smoking cessation. Smokers with clinical depression were excluded. Treatment consisted of nine weeks of bupropion (150 mg a day for the first three days, and then 150 mg twice daily) or placebo, as well as eight weeks of nicotine-patch therapy (21 mg per day during weeks 2 through 7, 14 mg per day during week 8, and 7 mg per day during week 9) or placebo. The target day for quitting smoking was usually day 8. RESULTS: The abstinence rates at 12 months were 15.6 percent in the placebo group, as compared with 16.4 percent in the nicotine-patch group, 30.3 percent in the bupropion group (P<0.001), and 35.5 percent in the group given bupropion and the nicotine patch (P<0.001). By week 7, subjects in the placebo group had gained an average of 2.1 kg, as compared with a gain of 1.6 kg in the nicotine-patch group, a gain of 1.7 kg in the bupropion group, and a gain of 1.1 kg in the combined-treatment group (P<0.05). Weight gain at seven weeks was significantly less in the combined-treatment group than in the bupropion group and the placebo group (P<0.05 for both comparisons). A total of 311 subjects (34.8 percent) discontinued one or both medications. Seventy-nine subjects stopped treatment because of adverse events: 6 in the placebo group (3.8 percent), 16 in the nicotine-patch group (6.6 percent), 29 in the bupropion group (11.9 percent), and 28 in the combined-treatment group (11.4 percent). The most common adverse events were insomnia and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sustained-release bupropion alone or in combination with a nicotine patch resulted in significantly higher long-term rates of smoking cessation than use of either the nicotine patch alone or placebo. Abstinence rates were higher with combination therapy than with bupropion alone, but the difference was not statistically significant. (+info)
Modeling geriatric depression in animals: biochemical and behavioral effects of olfactory bulbectomy in young versus aged rats.
Geriatric depression exhibits biological and therapeutic differences relative to early-onset depression. We studied olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), a paradigm that shares major features of human depression, in young versus aged rats to determine mechanisms underlying these differences. Young OBX rats showed locomotor hyperactivity and a loss of passive avoidance and tactile startle. In contrast, aged OBX animals maintained avoidance and startle responses but showed greater locomotor stimulation; the aged group also exhibited decreased grooming and suppressed feeding with novel presentation of chocolate milk, effects which were not seen in young OBX. These behavioral contrasts were accompanied by greater atrophy of the frontal/parietal cortex and midbrain in aged OBX. Serotonin transporter sites were increased in the cortex and hippocampus of young OBX rats, but were decreased in the aged OBX group. Cell signaling cascades also showed age-dependent effects, with increased adenylyl cyclase responses to monoaminergic stimulation in young OBX but no change or a decrease in aged OBX. These data indicate that there are biological distinctions in effects of OBX in young and aged animals, which, if present in geriatric depression, provide a mechanistic basis for differences in biological markers and drug responses. OBX may provide a useful animal model with which to test therapeutic interventions for geriatric depression. (+info)
Negative immunoregulatory effects of antidepressants: inhibition of interferon-gamma and stimulation of interleukin-10 secretion.
There is now some evidence that major depression is accompanied by activation of the inflammatory response system. There is also some evidence that antidepressants may suppress the release of cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 by activated monocytes and IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) by activated T cells. This study was carried out to examine the effects of clomipramine, sertraline, and trazodone on the stimulated production of IFN gamma, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and IL-10, a negative immunoregulatory cytokine. Whole blood of nine healthy volunteers was stimulated with PHA, 5 micrograms/mL and LPS, 25 micrograms/mL for 72 hr with and without incubation with clomipramine, 10(-6) and 10(-9) M, sertraline, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M, and trazodone, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M. All three antidepressants significantly reduced IFN gamma secretion, whereas clomipramine and sertraline significantly increased IL-10 secretion in culture supernatant. All three antidepressants significantly reduced the IFN gamma/IL-10 ratio. The results suggest that antidepressants, at concentrations in the therapeutical range, have negative immunoregulatory effects through inhibition of IFN gamma and stimulation of IL-10 release. (+info)
A cost-effective approach to the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
In light of the tremendous expansion in the number of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors available to the clinician, the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee of the Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center considered the advantages and disadvantages of fluoxethine, paroxetine, and sertraline, to determine which agent or agents would be carried on the formulary. The committed recommended sertraline as the preferred agent for the treatment of depression, panic disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the economic outcome of that decision. The study population consisted of patients at the medical center who were receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during January through March of 1994 and those were receiving these agents between September 1995 and January 1996. The expanded collection period in 1995-96 was due to a relatively new medical center policy to offer 90-day fills on medication to reduce costs. The extended collection period assured a 100% sample of patients receiving these agents. The 1994 fluoxetine to sertraline dosage equivalency ratio was 20 mg:55.6 mg, based on average daily doses of fluoxetine and sertraline of 32.7 and 90.9 mg, respectively. The cost to the medical center for an average daily dose of fluoxetine was $1.86; sertraline cost $1.22 per day. The 1996 fluoxetine to sertraline dosage equivalency ratio (20 mg:51.3 mg) had not changed significantly since 1994, indicating that the dose of 20 mg of fluoxetine remained very close to a 50-mg dose of sertraline. The average daily doses of fluoxetine and sertraline (34.9 mg and 89.7 mg, respectively) were not significantly different than the 1994 doses. Only 33 patients had been prescribed paroxetine (average daily dose, 32.4 mg). On the basis of these values, the average daily cost of fluoxetine to the medical center was $2.01, compared with $1.18 for sertraline and $1.24 for paroxetine. This $0.83 per patient per day drug acquisition cost difference between fluoxetine and sertraline results in a drug cost reduction of $302,674 per year. (+info)
Effectiveness and economic impact of antidepressant medications: a review.
This article reviews the existing literature on the pharmacoeconomics and effectiveness of antidepressant medications. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have not proved to be more efficacious than the older tricyclics, and their prescription costs are significantly higher, they provide superior effectiveness; ie, patients are less likely to discontinue taking them or switch antidepressants. Pharmacoeconomic studies consistently demonstrate a relationship between this superior effectiveness and reductions in overall treatment costs, often through decreased utilization of medical and hospital services. The most conservative study found a cost offset that more than negated the extra cost of drugs, although the cost savings were not statistically significant. Other studies found statistically significant lowering of utilization costs by using SSRIs rather than tricyclics. Studies comparing SSRIs with each other present conflicting findings, although fluoxetine appears to have an edge over sertraline and paroxetine with regards to effectiveness and pharmacoeconomics. More studies employing a prospective outcome design and naturalistic study setting need to be conducted with SSRIs and other new antidepressants. (+info)
Course of antidepressant treatment with tricyclic versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor agents: a comparison in managed care and fee-for-service environments.
We compared course of treatment with tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCADs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to assess interactive effects of antidepressant type with payer type and patient characteristics. A nationwide sampling of adults (n = 4,252) from approximately equal numbers of health maintenance organization (HMO) and indemnity enrollees were prescribed no antidepressants for 9 months, and thereafter prescribed a TCAD or SSRI. Using a retrospective analysis of prescription claims, these cohorts of TCAD and SSRI utilizers were followed for 13 to 16 months after their initial antidepressant prescription. Outcome measures included (1) termination of antidepressant treatment before 1 month; and (2) failure to receive at least one therapeutic dose during treatment lasting 3 months or more. Rates of premature termination and subtherapeutic dosing were significantly higher for TCAD-treated than SSRI-treated patients, and for HMO than indemnity enrollees. The interaction of HMO enrollment and TCAD use was associated with particularly high rates. Excluding patients terminating in the first month, the proportions of TCAD and SSRI utilizers remaining in treatment over time were not significantly different. We conclude that SSRIs may provide advantages in treatment adherence and therapeutic dosing, particularly in environments with limited prescriber time. The first month of treatment may be especially critical in determining compliance. (+info)
Incidence and risk factors for hyponatraemia following treatment with fluoxetine or paroxetine in elderly people.
AIMS: To establish the incidence, time course and risk factors of hyponatraemia complicating treatment with fluoxetine or paroxetine in an elderly population. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive and case control study in an inpatient/outpatient assessment and rehabilitation service for people aged 65 years and over. Fourteen elderly patients with hyponatraemia complicating treatment with fluoxetine or paroxetine, matched with 56 controls drawn from 845 patients treated with fluoxetine or paroxetine over 3.5 years. No other SSRI antidepressants were used over the study period. RESULTS: The incidence of hyponatraemia was 4.7/1000 people treated/year (6.3/1000 for fluoxetine and 3.5/1000 for paroxetine). Hyponatraemia was detected at a median 13.5 (mean 18.6, range 4-64) days after commencing the drug. Mean (95% confidence intervals) body weights were lower in cases at 53.0 (95% CI 46.5-59.5) kg compared with controls at 64.5 (95% CI 60.1-68.4) kg (P<0.01). 71% of cases were women compared with 45% of controls (P=0.07) but the effect of gender was confounded by body weight. There were trends for cases to be older (odds ratio 1.10: 95% CI 0.99, 1.23) and lighter (odds ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.86, 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 in 200 elderly people treated per year with fluoxetine or paroxetine developed complicating hyponatraemia. Low body weight was a particular risk factor. Most cases occurred within 3 weeks of treatment. (+info)
Effects of fluoxetine on the polysomnogram in outpatients with major depression.
This study investigated the effects of open-label fluoxetine (20 mg/d) on the polysomnogram (PSG) in depressed outpatients (n = 58) who were treated for 5 weeks, after which dose escalation was available (< or = 40 mg/d), based on clinical judgment. Thirty-six patients completed all 10 weeks of acute phase treatment and responded (HRS-D < or = 10). PSG assessments were conducted and subjective sleep evaluations were gathered at baseline and at weeks 1, 5, and 10. Of the 36 subjects who completed the acute phase, 17 were reevaluated after 30 weeks on continuation phase treatment and 13 after approximately 7 weeks (range 6-8 weeks) following medication discontinuation. Acute phase treatment in responders was associated with significant increases in REM latency, Stage 1 sleep, and REM density, as well as significant decreases in sleep efficiency, total REM sleep, and Stage 2 sleep. Conversely, subjective measures of sleep indicated a steady improvement during acute phase treatment. After fluoxetine was discontinued, total REM sleep and sleep efficiency were found to be increased as compared to baseline. (+info)