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(1/71) Serum cytokine detection in the clinical follow up of patients with cystic echinococcosis.

The relation of serum cytokine levels and outcome of chemotherapy was evaluated in 15 patients with cystic echinococcosis. Serum IL-4, IL-10 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) concentrations were determined by ELISA before and after a 3-month course of albendazole treatment: at least one serum sample per patient from 13 patients (87%) contained measurable amounts of IL-4; samples from five patients (33%) measurable amounts of IL-10 and samples from only two patients (13%) measurable amounts of IFN-gamma. Clinical assessment at 1 year after the end of therapy showed that 11 of the 15 patients had responded clinically. Seven of these patients had lower IL-4 serum concentrations, two had unchanged and two undetectable amounts (pre- versus post-therapy, n = 11, P = 0.008). Conversely, of the patients who did not respond, three had higher and one patient unchanged serum IL-4 concentrations. Serum IL-10 10 levels also decreased in all patients who responded (3/5) and increased in all patients who did not (2/5). No association was found between cytokine concentrations and cyst characteristics or antibody levels. Overall these data suggest that serum IL-4 detection may be useful in the follow up of patients with cystic echinococcosis.  (+info)

(2/71) Treating neurocysticercosis medically: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials.

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effects of cysticidal therapy used for treating human cysticercosis. METHODS: Published and unpublished studies in any language identified through MEDLINE (1966 - June 1999) specialized databases, abstracts, proceedings and contact with experts were analysed. Those which compared, using randomized or quasi-randomized methods, any cysticidal drug with placebo or symptomatic therapy were entered in the study. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and trial quality assessed. Meta-analysis using fixed effects models calculated provided there was no significant heterogeneity, expressed as relative risk. RESULTS: Four trials met the inclusion criteria, treating intraparenchymatous neurocysticercosis with either albendazole or praziquantel compared to placebo or no treatment. In the two trials reporting clinical outcomes, treatment was not associated with a reduction in the risk of seizures, although numbers were small (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.59-1.51). Four trials reported radiological outcomes, and cysticidal treatment was associated with a lower risk of cyst persistence of scans taken within six months of start of treatment (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.99). Subsidiary analysis assuming different outcomes in patients lost to follow-up did not alter the findings of the main analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to determine whether cysticidal therapy is of any clinical benefit to patients with neurocysticercosis. The review does not exclude the possibility that more patients remain seizure-free when treated with cysticidal drugs. Further testing through placebo-controlled trials is required.  (+info)

(3/71) Cysticidal therapy: impact on seizure control in epilepsy associated with neurocysticercosis.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features and seizure control of epilepsy related to neurocysticercosis. METHOD: 18 patients with partial epilepsy and neurocysticercosis were treated with albendazol or praziquantel and followed from 3 months to 12 years. We analyzed results from the CSF exam, interictal electroencephalogram (EEG), head computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 36.4 years. The mean duration of epilepsy was 16 years. 83% patients had simple partial seizures; 17% had complex partial seizures. All patients underwent routine EEGs: 62% had abnormalities and 38% were normal. A relationship was observed between focal EEG abnormality and the location of cyst in 28% of the patients. The CSF exams showed pleocytosis in 33% of the patients, and 28% had elevated protein levels. Only 22% of patients had positive titer for cysticercosis in the CSF. In all patients who had somatosensory and special sensory seizures there was a relationship between location of the cysts and seizure semiology (n=11). After cysticidal therapy, 83% patients had a significant improvement in controlling seizures. CONCLUSION: In this group, we found a predominance of simple partial seizures and a relationship between somatosensory and special sensory seizures and the location of the cysts. Cysticidal therapy was effective in controlling seizures in these patients and should be considered for patients with partial seizures and semiology related to cyst location.  (+info)

(4/71) Medical treatment for neurocysticercosis characterized by giant subarachnoid cysts.

BACKGROUND: Infection with the larval form of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, can lead to the development of cysts in the brain. Surgical removal of cysts has been the accepted treatment for neurocysticercosis characterized by giant cysts when there is associated intracranial hypertension. METHODS: We describe 33 patients whom we treated medically for malignant forms of neurocysticercosis. All patients had evidence of intracranial hypertension and subarachnoid cysts at least 50 mm in diameter. All patients received 15 mg of albendazole per kilogram of body weight per day for four weeks. Ten patients were also treated with 100 mg of praziquantel per kilogram per day for four weeks. Seventeen patients received a second course of albendazole, three received a third course, and one received a fourth course. During the first cycle of treatment, all patients also received dexamethasone. Five patients had previously undergone neurosurgery for giant cysts. RESULTS: After a median of 59 months of follow-up (range, 7 to 102), the condition of all 33 patients had improved, and the cysts had disappeared or become calcified. Of the 22 patients with a history of seizures, only 11 continued to receive antiseizure medications. The median quality-of-life score on the Karnofsky scale improved from 40 to 100. Fifteen patients received a ventriculoperitoneal shunt because of hydrocephalus. Four patients had persistent sequelae (bilateral partial optic atrophy, stroke, or diplopia) of the cysts. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive medical treatment can be effective in patients with neurocysticercosis characterized by giant cysts. Neurosurgery may be required only when there is an imminent risk of death.  (+info)

(5/71) Hepatic hydatid cyst rupturing into sub-diaphragmatic space and pericardial cavity.

A ten-year-old male child presented with a large hepatic hydatid cyst which ruptured into the sub-diaphragmatic space and pericardial cavity, giving rise to a pericardial effusion. This communication between the hydatid cyst and the pericardium was documented on computerised tomographic scan of the chest and abdomen. The cyst was aspirated carefully and then enucleated. There was an associated right-sided reactionary pleural effusion. The pericardial effusion and pleural effusion resolved on albendazole therapy and did not require surgical intervention.  (+info)

(6/71) Continuous long-term albendazole therapy in intraabdominal cystic echinococcosis.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the therapeutic effects of long-term albendazole therapy in intraabdominal cystic echinococcosis. METHODS: Fifteen patients with a total of 45 cysts were treated with albendazole with dosage regimen of 20 mg.kg-1.d-1 for an average of 2.5 years. Repeated CT and ultrasound scannings (US) were performed after the end of therapy. The duration of follow-up was 3.6 years on average. The number, size and morphology of cysts were compared before and after treatment. RESULTS: The hydatid cysts were classified according to location and CT patterns into hepatic simple cysts, hepatic cysts with daughter cysts, hepatic/abdominal cysts and splenic cysts. The hepatic simple cysts responded most favorably to albendazole therapy, with an overall cure rate of 88.7%. The disappearance of cysts was observed in 43.0% of cases (15/35). Sixteen cysts (45.7%) became solidified or calcified, among which 8 cysts were completely calcified, 6 showed egg shell-like calcification of the cystic walls, and 2 showed solidification and calcification of cyst contents. Four patients had large hepatic cysts containing daughter cysts; the daughter cysts all disappeared after treatment, but one patient relapsed with the reappearance of daughter cysts at 4-year follow-up. Two splenic cysts also calcified. Two patients had peritoneal cysts; one calcified and the other one reduced in size. Among 15 patients treated, 9 were cured and 6 were improved. There was no serious toxic reactions with continuous long-term therapy in a small series of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous long-term albendazole treatment of intraabdominal cystic echinococcosis is safe and effective in the treatment of hepatic simple cysts, and some daughter cysts, peritoneal secondary cysts and splenic cysts. No serious toxic reactions were found.  (+info)

(7/71) A combined medical and surgical approach to hydatid disease: 12 years' experience at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London.

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus as to the most appropriate treatment for the varied and often complicated presentations of hydatid disease in Britain. We looked at our own results over a 12-year period to see if a consistent and logical plan had emerged. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 70 patients presenting between 1986 and 1998 were analysed retrospectively, with regard to their presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcome, with particular reference to the use of chemotherapy, and to the difficulties of post-treatment assessment by serology and imaging. RESULTS: 37 patients had been treated previously. 35 had hepatic cysts and 26 multiple cysts. 4 patients were treated by surgery alone, 44 by chemotherapy and surgery, and 14 by chemotherapy alone. The combined use of albendazole and praziquantel pre-operatively reduced significantly the number of cysts that contained viable protoscolices: 1/25 versus 5/8 that received albendazole alone (P = 0.00013). During the 12-year period, it became our policy to aim for 3 months drug treatment (albendazole throughout with praziquantel for 2 weeks), re-assess and proceed either to surgery or to continue with chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to construct an algorithm for the management of patients with hydatid disease by chemotherapy and surgery, but the assessment of results by indirect techniques remains difficult.  (+info)

(8/71) Long-term serological evaluation of patients with cystic echinococcosis treated with benzimidazole carbamates.

Seeking better immunological markers indicating the long-term outcome of cystic echinococcosis (CE) after chemotherapy we studied 23 patients receiving albendazole, clinically followed for 8 years, and grouped ultrasonographically according to therapeutic outcome. Antibody responses against a partially purified fraction of hydatid fluid (HFF) and antigen B (AgB) were evaluated by indirect haemagglutination (IHA), ELISA and immunoblotting (IB). Although IHA titres varied over the course of treatment, differences in mean antibody titres to HFF between groups were significant only at 4 years (P = 0.031). IgG isotype expression remained unchanged during follow-up whereas IgE expression decreased in patients with cured or stable disease. AgB disclosed higher IgG4 expression (P < 10(-4); P = 0.025) and lower IgG1 expression than HFF (P < 10(-4); P = 0.022). IHA antibody titres were higher in patients with progressive than in those with cured or stable disease, even in those with the same cyst type. ELISA isotype profiles differed between groups, particularly for type CE 3, 4 and 5 cysts: higher serum IgG1 and IgG3, lower IgG4 and IgE in patients with cured or stable disease. Although combined serological testing provides scarce information on the long-term outcome of CE after chemotherapy it may be useful for reviewing in a retrospective study the outcome of a cyst and for assessing the host-parasite relationship.  (+info)