Post-infection immunodeficiency virus control by neutralizing antibodies.
BACKGROUND: Unlike most acute viral infections controlled with the appearance of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), primary HIV infections are not met with such potent and early antibody responses. This brings into question if or how the presence of potent antibodies can contribute to primary HIV control, but protective efficacies of antiviral antibodies in primary HIV infections have remained elusive; and, it has been speculated that even NAb induction could have only a limited suppressive effect on primary HIV replication once infection is established. Here, in an attempt to answer this question, we examined the effect of passive NAb immunization post-infection on primary viral replication in a macaque AIDS model. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The inoculums for passive immunization with simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVmac239)-specific neutralizing activity were prepared by purifying polyclonal immunoglobulin G from pooled plasma of six SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques with NAb induction in the chronic phase. Passive immunization of rhesus macaques with the NAbs at day 7 after SIVmac239 challenge resulted in significant reduction of set-point plasma viral loads and preservation of central memory CD4 T lymphocyte counts, despite the limited detection period of the administered NAb responses. Peripheral lymph node dendritic cell (DC)-associated viral RNA loads showed a remarkable peak with the NAb administration, and DCs stimulated in vitro with NAb-preincubated SIV activated virus-specific CD4 T lymphocytes in an Fc-dependent manner, implying antibody-mediated virion uptake by DCs and enhanced T cell priming. CONCLUSIONS: Our results present evidence indicating that potent antibody induction post-infection can result in primary immunodeficiency virus control and suggest direct and indirect contribution of its absence to initial control failure in HIV infections. Although difficulty in achieving requisite neutralizing titers for sterile HIV protection by prophylactic vaccination has been suggested, this study points out a possibility of non-sterile HIV control by prophylactic vaccine-induced, sub-sterile titers of NAbs post-infection, providing a rationale of vaccine-based NAb induction for primary HIV control. (+info)
IgG fc receptors provide an alternative infection route for murine gamma-herpesvirus-68.
BACKGROUND: Herpesviruses can be neutralized in vitro but remain infectious in immune hosts. One difference between these settings is the availability of immunoglobulin Fc receptors. The question therefore arises whether a herpesvirus exposed to apparently neutralizing antibody can still infect Fc receptor(+) cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immune sera blocked murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) infection of fibroblasts, but failed to block and even enhanced its infection of macrophages and dendritic cells. Viral glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies also enhanced infection. MHV-68 appeared to be predominantly latent in macrophages regardless of whether Fc receptors were engaged, but the infection was not abortive and new virus production soon overwhelmed infected cultures. Lytically infected macrophages down-regulated MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation, endocytosis and their response to LPS. CONCLUSIONS: IgG Fc receptors limit the neutralization of gamma-herpesviruses such as MHV-68. (+info)
The murine gammaherpesvirus-68 gp150 acts as an immunogenic decoy to limit virion neutralization.
Herpesviruses maintain long-term infectivity without marked antigenic variation. They must therefore evade neutralization by other means. Immune sera block murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) infection of fibroblasts, but fail to block and even enhance its infection of IgG Fc receptor-bearing cells, suggesting that the antibody response to infection is actually poor at ablating virion infectivity completely. Here we analyzed this effect further by quantitating the glycoprotein-specific antibody response of MHV-68 carrier mice. Gp150 was much the commonest glycoprotein target and played a predominant role in driving Fc receptor-dependent infection: when gp150-specific antibodies were boosted, Fc receptor-dependent infection increased; and when gp150-specific antibodies were removed, Fc receptor-dependent infection was largely lost. Neither gp150-specific monoclonal antibodies nor gp150-specific polyclonal sera gave significant virion neutralization. Gp150 therefore acts as an immunogenic decoy, distorting the MHV-68-specific antibody response to promote Fc receptor-dependent infection and so compromise virion neutralization. This immune evasion mechanism may be common to many non-essential herpesvirus glycoproteins. (+info)
Herpesvirus carriers transmit infection despite making virus-specific antibodies. Thus, their antibody responses are not necessarily optimal. An important question for infection control is whether vaccinating carriers might improve virus neutralization. The antibody response to murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) blocks cell binding, but fails to block and even enhances an IgG Fc receptor-dependent infection of myeloid cells. Viral membrane fusion therefore remains intact. Although gH/gL-specific monoclonal antibodies can block infection at a post-binding step close to membrane fusion, gH/gL is a relatively minor antibody target in virus carriers. We show here that gH/gL-specific antibodies can block both Fc receptor-independent and Fc receptor-dependent infections, and that vaccinating virus carriers with a gH/gL fusion protein improves their capacity for virus neutralization both in vitro and in vivo. This approach has the potential to reduce herpesvirus transmission. (+info)
Pediatric measles vaccine expressing a dengue antigen induces durable serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies to dengue virus.
Dengue disease is an increasing global health problem that threatens one-third of the world's population. Despite decades of efforts, no licensed vaccine against dengue is available. With the aim to develop an affordable vaccine that could be used in young populations living in tropical areas, we evaluated a new strategy based on the expression of a minimal dengue antigen by a vector derived from pediatric live-attenuated Schwarz measles vaccine (MV). As a proof-of-concept, we inserted into the MV vector a sequence encoding a minimal combined dengue antigen composed of the envelope domain III (EDIII) fused to the ectodomain of the membrane protein (ectoM) from DV serotype-1. Immunization of mice susceptible to MV resulted in a long-term production of DV1 serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies. The presence of ectoM was critical to the immunogenicity of inserted EDIII. The adjuvant capacity of ectoM correlated with its ability to promote the maturation of dendritic cells and the secretion of proinflammatory and antiviral cytokines and chemokines involved in adaptive immunity. The protective efficacy of this vaccine should be studied in non-human primates. A combined measles-dengue vaccine might provide a one-shot approach to immunize children against both diseases where they co-exist. (+info)
Autocrine semaphorin3A stimulates alpha2 beta1 integrin expression/function in breast tumor cells.