Alternating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody specificity: drug-induced vasculitis in a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis.
We describe a patient who presented with Wegener's granulomatosis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) with a cytoplasmic immunofluorescence pattern (cANCA), whose ANCA type changed to antimyeloperoxidase antibodies with a perinuclear immunofluorescence pattern (pANCA) when treated with propylthiouracil, and changed back to anti-PR3 antibodies with cANCA after the medication was discontinued. The patient developed flares of vasculitis symptoms associated with rises in either type of ANCA. Tests for antimyeloperoxidase ANCA were repeatedly negative before the drug was started, strongly implicating the drug as the cause of the episode. This case demonstrates that patients with idiopathic ANCA-positive vasculitis may quickly develop a superimposed drug-associated ANCA-positive vasculitis. Iatrogenic vasculitis should be suspected when a patient with idiopathic vasculitis with one type of ANCA develops the other type of ANCA. (+info)
Interleukin-8: A pathogenetic role in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated glomerulonephritis.
BACKGROUND: In neutrophil trafficking, the role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) is location dependent. Tissue IL-8 directs transmigration, whereas intravascular IL-8 frustrates this process. The bystander damage of glomerular endothelium by antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-activated neutrophils is believed to be an early event in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis. We have studied the role of IL-8 in this process. METHODS: Intraglomerular expression of IL-8 in patients with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis was studied by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry and location of neutrophils by serial section immunohistochemistry. In vitro, we analyzed ANCA-stimulated neutrophil IL-8 production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the IL-8 attributable effect of ANCA-stimulated neutrophil supernatant by chemotactic and transendothelial assays. RESULTS: There was intraglomerular expression of IL-8 at segmental, crescentic, and parietal epithelial sites. IL-8 protein expression colocalized to intraglomerular neutrophils; many localized within glomerular capillary loops, suggesting failed trafficking to tissue IL-8. ANCAs differentially stimulated time- and dose-dependent neutrophil IL-8 production, and ANCA-stimulated neutrophil supernatant demonstrated potent IL-8-dependent chemotactic activity and inhibited transendothelial migration of normal human neutrophils toward an IL-8 gradient. CONCLUSION: Despite heavy tissue expression of IL-8 in ANCA-associated GN, the production of IL-8 by ANCA-stimulated neutrophils within the intravascular compartment may frustrate neutrophil transmigration, encourage intravascular stasis, and contribute to bystander damage of glomerular endothelial cells. (+info)
Prominence of cell-mediated immunity effectors in "pauci-immune" glomerulonephritis.
The majority of patients with rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis show histologic features of extensive necrosis and focal and segmental proliferation with fibrin production, but little or absent Ig deposition in the glomerulus. This subcategory of the disease, labeled "pauci-immune" glomerulonephritis, has recently been shown to be associated with the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody in the patient's circulation (but not within the glomerulus). The absence of the effectors of humoral immunity at the site of renal injury led to this investigation of the contribution of cell-mediated immunity to the glomerular injury in this form of glomerulonephritis. In 15 patients presenting acutely with pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, CD3-positive T cells (3.7+/-2.5 [mean +/- SD] cells per glomerular cross section, [c/gcs]), CD45RO-positive T cells (2.7+/-1.9 c/cgs), macrophages (7.3+/-6.1 c/gcs), fibrin (3+), and endothelial-associated tissue factor were demonstrated to be prominent in glomeruli. These mediators were absent in a group of 12 patients with thin basement membrane disease and only occasionally observed in a group of eight patients with "humorally mediated"(noncrescentic) glomerulonephritis. Thus, in pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, there is the development of significant cell-mediated immunity with activated T cells, macrophages, tissue factor, and fibrin at the site of glomerular injury, suggesting that this glomerular disease is most likely a manifestation of T cell-directed cognate immune injury. (+info)
Microscopic polyangiitis: clinical and laboratory findings in eighty-five patients.
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and outcomes in patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) who were enrolled in various clinical trials conducted by the French Vasculitis Study Group. METHODS: A cohort of 85 patients meeting the Chapel Hill criteria for MPA participated in the study. Seventy-one of them were included in prospective therapeutic trials. Eighty-one diagnoses were biopsy proven. In the other patients, diagnosis was based on clinical findings. RESULTS: Forty-seven men and 38 women, with a mean +/- SD age of 56.8 +/- 14.6 years, met the criteria for MPA. Their main clinical symptoms were renal manifestations (78.8%), weight loss (72.9%), skin involvement (62.4%), fever (55.3%), mononeuritis multiplex (57.6%), arthralgias (50.6%), myalgias (48.2%), hypertension (34.1%), lung involvement (24.7%; alveolar hemorrhage 11.8%), and cardiac failure (17.6%). The mean +/- SD serum creatinine level before treatment was 2.59 +/- 2.96 mg/dl; 47 patients had renal insufficiency (serum creatinine > 1.36 mg/dl). Eight patients underwent dialysis at the time of diagnosis, and long-term dialysis was necessary for 10 patients. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) were present in 38 of 51 patients (74.5%), of whom 33 had a perinuclear staining pattern (pANCA) and 5 had a cytoplasmic pattern. Antibodies to proteinase 3 were present in 4 patients and antibodies to myeloperoxidase were detected in 31, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 30 patients who underwent renal and celiac angiography, 4 had microaneurysms. Of the 29 patients (34.1%) who had relapses, 8 died during or after the relapse. During followup, 28 of the 85 patients (32.9%) died. The mean +/- SD duration of followup of the group was 69.9 +/- 60.6 months. Deaths were less frequent when patients had been treated with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs (13 patients [24.1%]) than with steroids alone (15 patients [48.4%]) (P < 0.01). The 5-year survival rate was 74%. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that MPA is a multisystemic disease in which renal symptoms are frequent, but the disease is also associated with general symptoms, arthritis, mononeuritis multiplex, and other manifestations that are also seen in various vasculitides. The rarity of abnormal angiogram findings and the high frequency of pANCA are characteristic of MPA. In most cases, the outcome is comparable with those of other systemic vasculitides, but relapses are frequent. (+info)
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and autoimmunity: a tale of shadows and suspects.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The key pathogenic feature of TTP is the formation of platelet aggregates within the microcirculation; however, the etiology of such aggregates has been elusive for years. A large amount of evidence points to an abnormal interaction between damaged vascular endothelium and platelets, although the cause of the primary microvascular endothelial cell injury is seldom clear. The autoimmune hypothesis often recurs, and this is based on a number of observations: the claimed superiority of plasma-exchange over plasma infusion, the anecdotal report of the presence of immunocomplexes and autoantibodies in TTP patients, the efficacy of the administration of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressant agents, and the concomitant occurrence of TTP in association with autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This review will focus on the complex relationships between TTP and humoral autoimmunity; in particular, similarities and differences between TTP, SLE and antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies syndrome, as well as the putative role of several other antibodies directed towards endothelial cells and/or platelets, including the recently discovered anti-CD36 antibodies and antivWF-cleaving metalloprotease, will be discussed. DESIGN AND METHODS: The authors have been involved in the study and treatment of TTP and autoimmune diseases for years; furthermore, the PubMed data base of the National Library of Congress has been extensively searched using the Internet. CONCLUSIONS: Although over the years evidence has increased in favor of the autoimmune hypothesis for TTP etiopathogenesis, TTP should not yet be considered an autoimmune disease. Autoantibodies should be regarded as only one of the many different insults which can trigger microvascular thrombosis even though the autoimmune theory of the pathogenesis of TTP is gaining more and more strength. As far as concerns the relationship between TTP, SLE and aPL antibodies-related disorders, these diseases should be distinguished on the basis of both different clinical presentations and accurate antibody screening, although this approach should definitely not delay the prompt start of treatment. (+info)
Wegener's granulomatosis associated with renal cell carcinoma.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequencies and types of malignant neoplasms occurring before or simultaneously with the diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), and to test for the presence of "Wegener's autoantigen," proteinase 3 (PR3), in malignant tissues from WG patients to ascertain whether an association exists between malignancy and WG. METHODS: A retrospective statistical analysis was performed on the medical records of 477 patients with WG as compared with a control group of 479 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A murine monoclonal antibody was used to test malignant tissues for the presence of PR3. RESULTS: A malignant neoplasm was found in 23 patients in the WG group and in 18 patients in the control group. The odds ratio for malignant neoplasm in the WG group was 1.79 (P = 0.0876, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.92-3.48). Seven patients with renal cell carcinoma were found in the WG group compared with 1 patient in the control group, for an odds ratio of 8.73 (P = 0.0464, 95% CI 1.04-73.69). Simultaneous occurrence of cancer and WG was observed in 14 patients with WG compared with 1 control patient, for an odds ratio of 18.00 (P = 0.0059, 95% CI 230-140.67). Furthermore, the diseases occurred simultaneously in 5 of the 7 patients with both WG and renal cell carcinoma, but not in the single patient in the control group with RA and renal cell carcinoma. PR3 could not be detected in any of the 8 malignant tissue samples (4 renal cell carcinomas) investigated in the patients from the WG group. CONCLUSION: The close temporal association between renal cell carcinoma and WG suggests that malignancy is, in some cases, a trigger for the development of WG. However, since PR3 was not found in malignant tissues from the WG patients, the immunopathologic mechanisms leading to autoimmunity and vasculitis remain unclear. (+info)
Expression of major histocompatibility class II antigens on polymorphonuclear neutrophils in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis.
BACKGROUND: Wegener's granulomatosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Many studies suggest that autoimmune reactions are involved, and there is good evidence for the participation of immunocompetent cells. In that context, we examined the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. METHODS: In a prospective study, the expression on the surface of PMNs of CD64 and of the major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) antigen was measured by cytofluorometry in whole blood. The expression of those antigens was correlated to disease activity. RESULTS: Up to 15% of the peripheral PMNs of patients with active disease expressed MHC II. Follow-up studies showed that expression correlated closely with disease activity and that it decreased rapidly under immunosuppressive therapy. Expression of CD64 was seen in approximately 50% of the patients, regardless of disease activity. CONCLUSION: MHC II expression on PMNs might serve as a novel diagnostic marker for active disease and appears to be suitable for monitoring immunotherapy. Moreover, our data provide evidence that PMNs, which are normally MHC II negative, acquire MHC II antigens in the course of disease and may be an unrecognized function within the afferent limb of the immune response. (+info)
Definition of ocular antigens in ciliary body and retinal ganglion cells by the marker antibody pANCA.
PURPOSE: A subset of patients with anterior uveitis express the marker, perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA). In this study, recombinantly isolated pANCA monoclonal antibodies were used to search for ocular cells expressing the pANCA antigen. METHODS: Paraffin sections of human ocular tissues obtained after death were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to identify cell types expressing pANCA antigen. Microdissected eye-bank ocular tissue was characterized by western blot analysis to confirm antigen expression and identify candidate protein species. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis with pANCA monoclonal antibodies revealed cytoplasmic antigen expression in retinal ganglion cells and ciliary body epithelium. pANCA antigen expression was restricted to tissues bearing these cell types by western blot analysis. A common set of epitope-positive protein species was shared by the two tissues (28 kDa, 80 kDa, and 90 kDa). Comparison of ocular tissues from seven subjects revealed no heterogeneity in antigen expression. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, novel cytoplasmic antigens of the pANCA marker antibody expressed in ciliary body and retinal tissue were identified. Validation of these antigens as targets of inflammation in pANCA+ uveitis requires further biochemical and immunologic analysis. (+info)