Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor.
Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis. (+info)
Human triclonal anti-IgG gammopathy. I. Iso-electric focusing characteristics of the IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG and their heavy and light chains.
Human IgG, IgA and IgM anti-IgG autoantibodies have been isolated from the serum of an individual with Felty's syndrome. These were initially noted as soluble circulating serum complexes by analytical ultracentrifugation. Isolation was accomplished by solid phase immunoadsorption and each of the three antibody populations obtained was shown to be of restricted heterogeneity by liquid and polyacrylamide gel electrofocussing methods. Type kappa light chains were obtained from each protein. Co-isoelectric focusing experiments of all possible pairs of these light chains showed them to have identical net charge characteristics. Heavy chains obtained from each protein were also monoclonal and of differing isoelectric point. The availability of this serum provides a human model with which to study the changes which may occur in autoantibodies during the autoimmune response. (+info)
Plasma anti-serotonin and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies are elevated in panic disorder.
The psychoneuroimmunology of panic disorder is relatively unexplored. Alterations within brain stress systems that secondarily influence the immune system have been documented. A recent report indicated elevations of serotonin (5-HT) and ganglioside antibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia, a condition with documented associations with panic disorder. In line with our interest in dysregulated 5-HT systems in panic disorder (PD), we wished to assess if antibodies directed at the 5-HT system were elevated in patients with PD in comparison to healthy volunteers. Sixty-three patients with panic disorder and 26 healthy volunteers were diagnosed by the SCID. Employing ELISA, we measured anti-5-HT and 5-HT anti-idiotypic antibodies (which are directed at 5-HT receptors). To include all subjects in one experiment, three different batches were run during the ELISA. Plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies: there was a significant group effect [patients > controls (p = .007)] and batch effect but no interaction. The mean effect size for the three batches was .76. Following Z-score transformation of each separate batch and then combining all scores, patients demonstrated significantly elevated levels of plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies. Neither sex nor age as covariates affected the significance of the results. There was a strong correlation between anti-serotonin antibody and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibody measures. Plasma anti-serotonin antibodies: there was a significant diagnosis effect [patients > controls (p = .037)]. Mean effect size for the three batches was .52. Upon Z-score transformation, there was a diagnosis effect with antibody elevations in patients. Covaried for sex and age, the result falls below significance to trend levels. The data raise the possibility that psychoimmune dysfunction, specifically related to the 5-HT system, may be present in PD. Potential interruption of 5-HT neurotransmission through autoimmune mechanisms may be of pathophysiologic significance in certain patients with panic disorder. It remains to be demonstrated if the peripheral autoimmunity is representative of CNS 5-HT neuronal alterations. Replication appears warranted. (+info)
Genetic linkage of IgA deficiency to the major histocompatibility complex: evidence for allele segregation distortion, parent-of-origin penetrance differences, and the role of anti-IgA antibodies in disease predisposition.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency (IgAD) is characterized by a defect of terminal lymphocyte differentiation, leading to a lack of IgA in serum and mucosal secretions. Familial clustering, variable population prevalence in different ethnic groups, and a predominant inheritance pattern suggest a strong genetic predisposition to IgAD. The genetic susceptibility to IgAD is shared with a less prevalent, but more profound, defect called "common variable immunodeficiency" (CVID). Here we show an increased allele sharing at 6p21 in affected members of 83 multiplex IgAD/CVID pedigrees and demonstrate, using transmission/diseqilibrium tests, family-based associations indicating the presence of a predisposing locus, designated "IGAD1," in the proximal part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The recurrence risk of IgAD was found to depend on the sex of parents transmitting the defect: affected mothers were more likely to produce offspring with IgAD than were affected fathers. Carrier mothers but not carrier fathers transmitted IGAD1 alleles more frequently to the affected offspring than would be expected under random segregation. The differential parent-of-origin penetrance is proposed to reflect a maternal effect mediated by the production of anti-IgA antibodies tentatively linked to IGAD1. This is supported by higher frequency of anti-IgA-positive females transmitting the disorder to children, in comparison with female IgAD nontransmitters, and by linkage data in the former group. Such pathogenic mechanisms may be shared by other MHC-linked complex traits associated with the production of specific autoantibodies, parental effects, and a particular MHC haplotype. (+info)
Antiidiotypic antibody recognizes an amiloride binding domain within the alpha subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel.
We previously raised an antibody (RA6.3) by an antiidiotypic approach which was designed to be directed against an amiloride binding domain on the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). This antibody mimicked amiloride in that it inhibited transepithelial Na+ transport across A6 cell monolayers. RA6.3 recognized a 72-kDa polypeptide in A6 epithelia treated with tunicamycin, consistent with the size of nonglycosylated Xenopus laevis alphaENaC. RA6.3 specifically recognized an amiloride binding domain within the alpha-subunit of mouse and bovine ENaC. The deduced amino acid sequence of RA6.3 was used to generate a three-dimensional model structure of the antibody. The combining site of RA6.3 was epitope mapped using a novel computer-based strategy. Organic residues that potentially interact with the RA6.3 combining site were identified by data base screening using the program LUDI. Selected residues docked to the antibody in a manner corresponding to the ordered linear array of amino acid residues within an amiloride binding domain on the alpha-subunit of ENaC. A synthetic peptide spanning this domain inhibited the binding of RA6.3 to alphaENaC. This analysis provided a novel approach to develop models of antibody-antigen interaction as well as a molecular perspective of RA6.3 binding to an amiloride binding domain within alphaENaC. (+info)
Elimination of the immunogenicity of therapeutic antibodies.
The immunogenicity of therapeutic Abs limits their long-term use. The processes of complementarity-determining region grafting, resurfacing, and hyperchimerization diminish mAb immunogenicity by reducing the number of foreign residues. However, this does not prevent anti-idiotypic and anti-allotypic responses following repeated administration of cell-binding Abs. Classical studies have demonstrated that monomeric human IgG is profoundly tolerogenic in a number of species. If cell-binding Abs could be converted into monomeric non-cell-binding tolerogens, then it should be possible to pretolerize patients to the therapeutic cell-binding form. We demonstrate that non-cell-binding minimal mutants of the anti-CD52 Ab CAMPATH-1H lose immunogenicity and can tolerize to the "wild-type" Ab in CD52-expressing transgenic mice. This finding could have utility in the long-term administration of therapeutic proteins to humans. (+info)
Cleavage of transcription factor SP1 by caspases during anti-IgM-induced B-cell apoptosis.
Apoptosis is instrumental in the processes generating the diversity of the B-cell repertoire. Autoreactive B-cells are eliminated by anti-IgM crosslinking after encountering self-antigens, but precise mechanisms leading to B-cell apoptosis are still not well understood. We report here the cleavage of the transcription factor SP1 in the human Burkitt lymphoma cell line BL60 during anti-IgM-induced apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed two cleavage products of approximately 68 kDa and 45 kDa after induction of apoptosis. Cleavage could be completely inhibited by zDEVD-fmk, an inhibitor specific for caspase 3-like proteases. In-vitro cleavage of recombinant SP1 by recombinant caspase 3 (CPP32) or caspase 7 (Mch 3) results in similar cleavage products as those observed in vivo. Recombinant caspase 6 (Mch 2) primarily generates a 68-kDa cleavage product, as observed after calcium ionophore (CaI) induced B-cell apoptosis. In contrast, caspase 1 (ICE) did not cleave SP1 in vitro. The time course of SP1 cleavage during anti-IgM-induced apoptosis is paralleled by an increase of caspase activity measured by DEVD-p-nitroanilide (DEVD-pNA) cleavage. DNA band-shift assays revealed a decrease in the intensity of the full length SP1/DNA complex and an increase in the intensity of a smaller complex due to the binding of one SP1 cleavage product. By Edman sequencing we could identify a caspase 3 cleavage site after Asp584 (D584AQPQAGR), generating a 22-kDa C-terminal SP1 protein fragment which still contains the DNA binding site. Our results show the cleavage of the human transcription factor SP1 in vivo and in vitro, underlining the central role of caspase 3-like proteases during the process of anti-IgM-induced apoptosis. (+info)
Extracellular signal-regulated kinases regulate leukotriene C4 generation, but not histamine release or IL-4 production from human basophils.
Human basophils secrete histamine and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in response to various stimuli, such as Ag and the bacterial product, FMLP. IgE-mediated stimulation also results in IL-4 secretion. However, the mechanisms of these three classes of secretion are unknown in human basophils. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs; ERK-1 and ERK-2) during IgE- and FMLP-mediated stimulation of human basophils was examined. Following FMLP stimulation, histamine release preceded phosphorylation of ERKs, whereas phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), and arachidonic acid (AA) and LTC4 release followed phosphorylation of ERKs. The phosphorylation of ERKs was transient, decreasing to baseline levels after 15 min. PD98059 (MEK inhibitor) inhibited the phosphorylation of ERKs and cPLA2 without inhibition of several other tyrosine phosphorylation events, including phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. PD98059 also inhibited LTC4 generation (IC50 = approximately 2 microM), but not histamine release. Stimulation with anti-IgE Ab resulted in the phosphorylation of ERKs, which was kinetically similar to both histamine and LTC4 release and decreased toward resting levels by 30 min. Similar to FMLP, PD98059 inhibited anti-IgE-mediated LTC4 release (IC50, approximately 2 microM), with only a modest effect on histamine release and IL-4 production at higher concentrations. Taken together, these results suggest that ERKs might selectively regulate the pathway leading to LTC4 generation by phosphorylating cPLA2, but not histamine release or IL-4 production, in human basophils. (+info)