(1/586) Evaluation of bactericidal activities of LY333328, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin-sulbactam, trovafloxacin, and RP59500 alone or in combination with rifampin or gentamicin against different strains of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus by time-kill curve methods.
This in vitro study evaluated the activities of vancomycin, LY333328, and teicoplanin alone and in combination with gentamicin, rifampin, and RP59500 against Staphylococcus aureus isolates with intermediate susceptibilities to vancomycin. Ampicillin-sulbactam and trovafloxacin were also evaluated. LY333328 and ampicillin-sulbactam resulted in bactericidal activity against all isolates. The combination of gentamicin with glycopeptides showed synergistic activity, while rifampin had no added benefit. (+info)
(2/586) rpoB mutations in multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Italy.
Mutations of rpoB associated with rifampin resistance were studied in 37 multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Italy. At least one mutated codon was found in each MDR strain. It was always a single-base substitution leading to an amino acid change. Nine different rpoB alleles, three of which had not been reported before, were found. The relative frequencies of specific mutations in this sample were different from those previously reported from different geographical areas, since 22 strains (59.5%) carried the mutated codon TTG in position 531 (Ser-->Leu) and 11 (29.7%) had GAC in position 526 (His-->Asp). (+info)
(3/586) Integron-mediated rifampin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
A new rifampin resistance gene, arr-2, has been found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ARR-2 protein shows 54% amino acid identity to the rifampin ADP-ribosylating transferase encoded by the arr gene from Mycobacterium smegmatis. This arr-2 gene is located on a gene cassette within a class I integron. (+info)
(4/586) Antibiotic resistance of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children in Lesotho.
Villages associated with the Lesotho Highlands Development Agency were randomized with a bias in favour of larger villages, and children < 5 years of age from cluster-randomized households in these villages were chosen for the assessment of antibiotic resistance in pneumococci. Children of the same age group attending clinics in the capital, Maseru, were selected for comparison. Nasopharyngeal cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae from both groups of children were examined for antibiotic resistance and a questionnaire was used to assess risk factors for the acquisition of resistant strains. Carriage of penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant pneumococci was significantly higher among 196 Maseru children compared with 324 rural children (P < 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively). Maseru children tended to visit clinics at an earlier age compared with their rural counterparts. The rural children were less exposed to antibiotics (P < 0.01), were less frequently hospitalized (P < 0.001), and rarely attended day care centres (P < 0.001). The very low incidence of antibiotic resistance in rural Lesotho and the higher incidence in Maseru are in stark contrast with the much higher frequencies found in the Republic of South Africa, many European countries, and the USA. (+info)
(5/586) Rifampicin is not an activator of the glucocorticoid receptor in A549 human alveolar cells.
It has recently been reported that rifampicin activates the glucocorticoid receptor and acts as an immunosuppressive drug. Because rifampicin constitutes an essential part of pulmonary tuberculosis therapy, we have examined whether it triggers glucocorticoid-like effects in alveolar cells. We have used reporter gene assays to measure the trans-activating and trans-repressing capacity of the glucocorticoid receptor after treating A549 human alveolar cells with rifampicin. The data show that rifampicin neither activated transcription from a promoter containing a glucocorticoid response element nor repressed the activity of activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB, which are transcription factors involved in the immune response. In addition, rifampicin was also unable to inhibit the expression of an endogenous gene that contains activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB response elements and encodes the proinflammatory cytokine RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein). Finally, nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor, which occurs after ligand binding, was not triggered by rifampicin. In contrast, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone scored positive in all corresponding control experiments. In conclusion, rifampicin is not an activator of the glucocorticoid receptor in A549 alveolar cells. Our results support the clinical observation that rifampicin is not an immunosuppressive drug and suggest that the current medical practice concerning this antibiotic should not be changed. (+info)
(6/586) In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of new rifamycin derivatives, KRM-1648 and KRM-1657.
The new rifamycin derivatives KRM-1657 and KRM-1648 were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against 44 strains of Helicobacter pylori. Although the drugs were not very active against other gram-negative bacteria, the MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited for these drugs were lower (0.002 and 0.008 microgram/ml, respectively) than those of amoxicillin and rifampin for H. pylori. Time-kill studies revealed that the bactericidal activities of these agents were due to cell lysis. The results presented here indicate that these new rifamycin derivatives may be useful for the eradication of H. pylori infections. (+info)
(7/586) Efficacy of microencapsulated rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice.
Rifampin is a first-line drug useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. By using biocompatible polymeric excipients of lactide and glycolide copolymers, two microsphere formulations were developed for targeted and sustained delivery of rifampin, with minimal dosing. A small-microsphere formulation, with demonstrated ability to inhibit intracellularly replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, was tested along with a large-microsphere formulation in an infected mouse model. Results revealed that by using a single treatment of the large-microsphere formulation, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in M. tuberculosis H37Rv CFUs in the lungs of mice by 26 days postinfection. A combination of small (given as two injections on day 0 and day 7) and large (given as one injection at day 0) rifampin-loaded microsphere formulations resulted in significant reductions in CFUs in the lungs by 26 days, achieving a 1.23 log10 reduction in CFUs. By comparison, oral treatment with 5, 10, or 20 mg of rifampin/kg of body weight, administered every day, resulted in a reduction of 0.42, 1.7, or 1.8 log10 units, respectively. Thus the microsphere formulations, administered in one or two doses, were able to achieve results in mice similar to those obtained with a daily drug regimen within the range of the highest clinically tolerated dosage in humans. These results demonstrate that microsphere formulations of antimycobacterial drugs such as rifampin can be used for therapy of tuberculosis with minimal dosing. (+info)
(8/586) In vitro and in vivo experimental activities of antifungal agents against Fusarium solani.
In the treatment of disseminated Fusarium infections, amphotericin B either alone or in combination with flucytosine and rifampin is the drug therapy most frequently used. The efficacy of these antifungal drugs was evaluated in a murine disseminated-infection model, with five strains of Fusarium solani. All the treatments were clearly ineffective. (+info)