Goodpasture antigen: expression of the full-length alpha3(IV) chain of collagen IV and localization of epitopes exclusively to the noncollagenous domain.
BACKGROUND: Tissue injury in Goodpasture (GP) syndrome (rapidly progressive glomerular nephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage) is mediated by antibasement membrane antibodies that are targeted to the alpha3(IV) chain of type IV collagen, one of five alpha(IV) chains that occur in the glomerular basement membrane. GP antibodies are known to bind epitopes within the carboxyl terminal noncollagenous domain (NC1) of the alpha3(IV) chain, termed the GP autoantigen. Whether epitopes also exist in the 1400-residue collagenous domain is unknown because studies to date have focused solely on the NC1 domain. A knowledge of GP epitopes is important for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease and for the development of therapeutic strategies. METHODS: A cDNA construct was prepared for the full-length human alpha3(IV) chain. The construct was stably transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The purified full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain was characterized by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The capacity of this chain for binding of GP antibodies from five patients was compared with that of the human r-alpha3(IV)NC1 domain by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The r-alpha3(IV) chain was secreted from 293 cells as a single polypeptide chain that did not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical molecule. An analysis of GP-antibody binding to the full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain showed binding exclusively to the globular NC1 domain. CONCLUSION: The full-length human alpha3(IV) chain possesses the capacity to bind GP autoantibodies. The epitope(s) is found exclusively on the nontriple-helical NC1 domain of the alpha3(IV) chain, indicating the presence of specific immunogenic properties. The alpha3(IV) chain alone does not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical homotrimeric molecule, suggesting that coassembly with either the alpha4(IV) and/or the alpha5(IV) chain may be required for triple-helix formation. (+info)
Identification of a clinically relevant immunodominant region of collagen IV in Goodpasture disease.
BACKGROUND: The characteristic feature of Goodpasture disease is the occurrence of an autoantibody response to the noncollagenous domain of the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen [alpha3(IV)NC1] in the alveolar and glomerular basement membrane. These antibodies are associated with the development of a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, with or without lung hemorrhage, whereas autoantibodies specific for the other alpha chains of the heterotrimeric type IV collagen probably do not cause disease. In this study, we have investigated whether differences in fine specificity of autoimmune recognition of the alpha3(IV)NC1 correlate with clinical outcome. METHODS: For mapping of antibody binding to type IV collagen, chimeric collagen constructs were generated in which parts of the alpha3(IV)NC1 domain were replaced by the corresponding sequences of homologous nonreactive alpha1(IV). The different recombinant collagen chimeras allowed the analysis of antibody specificities in 77 sera from well-documented patients. RESULTS: One construct that harbors the aminoterminal third of the alpha3(IV)NC1 was recognized by all sera, indicating that it represents the dominant target of the B-cell response in Goodpasture disease. Seventy percent of the samples recognized other parts of the molecule as well. However, only reactivity to the N-terminus of the alpha3(IV)NC1 correlated with prognosis, that is, kidney survival after six months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the crucial importance of antibody recognition of this particular domain for the pathogenesis of Goodpasture disease, thereby opening new avenues for the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. (+info)
Angiotensin II plays a pathogenic role in immune-mediated renal injury in mice.
Several lines of evidence show the importance of angiotensin II (AII) in renal injuries, especially when hemodynamic abnormalities are involved. To elucidate the role of AII in immune-mediated renal injury, we studied anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in AII type 1a receptor (AT1a)-deficient homozygous (AT1a-/-) and wild-type (AT1a+/+) mice. A transient activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was observed in both groups of mice at around day 1. A renal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was transiently induced at six hours in both groups, which was then downregulated at day 1. In the AT1a+/+ mice, after RAS activation, the glomerular expression of MCP-1 was exacerbated at days 7 and 14. Thereafter, severe proteinuria developed, and the renal expressions of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and collagen type I increased, resulting in severe glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. In contrast, glomerular expression of MCP-1, proteinuria, and tissue damage were markedly ameliorated in the AT1a-/- mice. Because this amelioration is likely due to the lack of AT1a, we can conclude that AII action, mediated by AT1a, plays a pathogenic role in anti-GBM nephritis, in which AII may contribute to the exacerbation of glomerular MCP-1 expression. These results suggest the involvement of AII in immune-mediated renal injuries. (+info)
P-selectin deficiency exacerbates experimental glomerulonephritis: a protective role for endothelial P-selectin in inflammation.
P-selectin is a leukocyte adhesion receptor present in endothelial cells and platelets. We examined the role of P-selectin in the autologous phase of an accelerated model of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis using P-selectin-deficient mice and chimeric mice expressing P-selectin only in platelets or endothelial cells. P-selectin-deficient mice exhibited more severe glomerular damage with increased interstitial mononuclear leukocytic infiltrates, and had significantly increased proteinuria and mortality when compared to wild-type mice. P-selectin on the endothelium was predominantly responsible for protection from the exacerbated disease, because chimeric mice with endothelial P-selectin, and not mice with platelet P-selectin, showed glomerular injury similar to that in wild-type animals. Levels of soluble circulating P-selectin were increased in nephritic wild-type mice and in chimeric mice with endothelial P-selectin, but not platelet P-selectin. Levels of soluble P-selectin, which has been shown to be anti-inflammatory in vitro, were inversely associated with the severity of disease. P-selectin was not expressed in the endothelium of the glomerulus or interstitium. Thus, the protective effect in wild-type mice may be accounted for, in part by soluble P-selectin shed by non-renal endothelial cells, although other endothelial P-selectin-dependent mechanisms cannot be ruled out. (+info)
IL-1 up-regulates osteopontin expression in experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis in the rat.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a macrophage chemotactic and adhesion molecule that acts to promote macrophage infiltration in rat anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis. The present study investigated the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the up-regulation of renal OPN expression in this disease model. Accelerated anti-GBM glomerulonephritis was induced in groups of six rats. Animals were treated by a constant infusion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist or saline (control) over days -1 to 14 (induction phase) or days 7 to 21 (established disease). In normal rat kidney, OPN was expressed in a few tubules (<5%) and absent from glomeruli. During the development of rat anti-GBM disease (days 7 to 21), there was substantial up-regulation of OPN mRNA and protein expression in glomeruli (>5 cells per glomerular cross-section) and tubular epithelial cells (50-75% OPN-positive). Up-regulation of OPN expression was associated with macrophage accumulation within the kidney, severe proteinuria, loss of renal function, and severe histological damage including glomerular crescentic formation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In contrast, IL-1 receptor antagonist treatment of either the induction phase of disease or established disease significantly reduced OPN mRNA and protein expression in glomeruli (/75-85%, P < 0.001) and tubules (/45-60%, P < 0.001). The reduction in OPN expression was associated with significant inhibition of macrophage accumulation and progressive renal injury. In vitro, the addition of IL-1 to the normal rat tubular epithelial cell line NRK52E up-regulated OPN mRNA and protein levels, an effect that was dose-dependent and inhibited by the addition of IL-1 receptor antagonist, thus demonstrating that IL-1 can act directly to up-regulate renal OPN expression. In conclusion, this study provides in vivo and in vitro evidence that IL-1 up-regulates OPN expression in experimental kidney disease and support for the argument that inhibition of OPN expression is one mechanism by which IL-1 receptor antagonist treatment suppresses macrophage-mediated renal injury. (+info)
Development of scarring and renal failure in a rat model of crescentic glomerulonephritis.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a rat model of crescentic glomerulonephritis which progresses to glomerulosclerosis and renal failure. METHODS: Glomerulonephritis was induced in Wistar Kyoto rats by a single injection of rabbit anti-glomerular basement membrane antiserum. Albuminuria and serum creatinine were monitored. Kidneys were examined, from 2.5 h to 44 days, using light-microscopy and immunohistochemistry. To characterize the glomerular inflammatory infiltrate, glomeruli were digested to single cells and analysed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) and by immunohistochemistry on cytospins. RESULTS: Rats developed albuminuria by 4 days and increased serum creatinine by day 18. Histology showed glomerular fibrinoid necrosis by day 4 and cellular crescents in a mean of 63% of glomeruli by day 11. By 6 weeks, rats had developed renal failure (mean creatinine >300 micromol/l) with 94% of the glomeruli showing glomerulosclerosis. The kidneys were also affected by severe interstitial nephritis and tubular loss. The glomeruli were infiltrated by monocytes/ macrophages (ED1+) and CD8+ (OX8+) cells. FACS analysis showed that CD8+ cells did not express T-cell markers (CD3, TCRalphabeta or TCRgammadelta) or the NK-cell marker (NKR-P1). FACS analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a population of monocytes reactive with OX8, and double-labelling of cytospin preparations of glomerular digests showed that a proportion of the CD8+ cells were a subset of ED1+ monocyte/macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: We have characterized a reproducible model of crescentic glomerulonephritis which rapidly progresses to chronic renal failure with glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial scarring. This model will be useful for testing new therapeutic approaches in crescentic glomerulonephritis. (+info)
Increased susceptibility to immunologically mediated glomerulonephritis in IFN-gamma-deficient mice.
It is postulated that IFN-gamma confers susceptibility to immunologically mediated tissue injury. To test this hypothesis, we compared the intensity of accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis between wild-type (IFN-gamma+/+) and IFN-gamma gene knockout (IFN-gamma-/-) mice. This disease model is initiated by binding of heterologous (sheep) anti-glomerular basement membrane Abs to the glomeruli of mice preimmunized with sheep IgG. The secondary cellular and humoral immune responses to the planted Ag then lead to albuminuria and glomerular pathology. We found that IFN-gamma-/- mice or IFN-gamma+/+ mice injected with IFN-gamma-neutralizing Ab develop worse albuminuria and glomerular pathology than IFN-gamma+/+ mice. The humoral response to sheep IgG (serum mouse anti-sheep IgG titers and intraglomerular mouse IgG deposits) was comparable in the IFN-gamma+/+ and IFN-gamma-/- groups. In contrast, IFN-gamma-/- mice mounted a stronger cellular immune response (cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction) to sheep IgG than IFN-gamma+/+ mice. These findings provide evidence that endogenous IFN-gamma has a protective role in immunologically mediated glomerulonephritis initiated by foreign Ags. (+info)
Goodpasture disease. Characterization of a single conformational epitope as the target of pathogenic autoantibodies.
Goodpasture disease is a prototype autoimmune disease characterized by the formation of autoantibodies against the heterotrimeric basement membrane collagen type IV, which causes a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The pathogenic antibody response is directed to the non-collagenous (NC1) domain of the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen (alpha3(IV)NC1), but not to the homologous region of the alpha1(IV)NC1. To identify the conformation-dependent immunodominant epitope on the alpha3(IV)NC1, a variety of recombinant NC1 domains were constructed by replacing single residues of alpha3(IV) with the corresponding amino acids from the nonreactive alpha1(IV) chain. Replacement mutations were identified that completely destroyed the Goodpasture epitope in the alpha3(IV) chain. Based on the identification of these critical positions, the epitope was finally reconstructed within the frame of the alpha1(IV) chain. The substitution of nine discontinuous positions in the alpha1(IV)NC1 with amino acid residues from the alpha3 chain resulted in a recombinant construct that was recognized by all patients' sera (n = 20) but by none of the sera from healthy controls (n = 10). This provides, for the first time, the molecular characterization of a single immunodominant conformational epitope recognized by pathogenic autoantibodies in a human autoimmune disease, representing the basis for the development of new epitope-specific strategies in the treatment of Goodpasture disease. (+info)