A heme peroxidase with a functional role as an L-tyrosine hydroxylase in the biosynthesis of anthramycin.
Evaluation of the electrophilicity of DNA-binding pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines by HPLC.
(10/25)An HPLC assay is described that can be used to study the covalent bonding interaction of carbinolamine-containing pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines with the model nucleophile thiophenol, in order to evaluate electrophilicity at the C-11-position. Preliminary experiments with anthramycin, tomaymycin and neothramycin show that their reaction with thiophenol follows second-order kinetics, but the ranking order of reactivity (neothramycin greater than tomaymycin greater than anthramycin), does not correlate with either in vitro cytotoxicity or in vivo antitumour activity. This suggests that other factors such as non-covalent DNA-interaction or drug transport play a more crucial role in biological activity than simple alkylating ability. This assay should, however, prove a useful tool in the study of structure-activity relationships for this series of compounds and provide "C-11-electrophilicity" parameters for use in Hansch analysis and related studies. (+info)
Porothramycin, a new antibiotic of the anthramycin group: production, isolation, structure and biological activity.
(11/25)A new antitumor antibiotic porothramycin was produced by a new strain of Streptomyces albus. The antibiotic was isolated in two active forms, the natural free hydroxyl form (porothramycin A) or the crystalline methyl ether form (porothramycin B) depending upon the isolation process used. Structural studies established that porothramycin is a new member of the pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepine group antibiotics having only one substituent on the benzene ring. The antibiotic exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and anaerobes and significantly prolonged the survival times of mice implanted with experimental tumors. (+info)
Autoradiographic demonstration of the antagonism of anthramycin and diazepam against cholecystokinin in the mouse brain using the [14C]-2-deoxyglucose method.
(12/25)Effects of diazepam (DZP), a synthetic benzodiazepine drug, and anthramycin (ATM), a benzodiazepine antitumor antibiotic produced by a certain species of streptomyces, on the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-[14C]-glucose (2-DG) in mouse brain neurons with or without cholecystokinin were examined. 2-DG uptake in neurons was evaluated by using an autoradiographic technique. The sulfated octapeptide CCK (CCK8) was injected intracisternally; DZP and ATM, intraperitoneally; and 2-DG, intravenously to mice. Autoradiograms prepared from the slices of the brain were converted to false color images. CCK8 (1 microgram/mouse) markedly stimulated the 2-DG uptake in neurons in the various regions of the brain, but the stimulative effects of CCK8 was almost completely suppressed after an intraperitoneal administration of 1.0 mg/kg of DZP or 0.5 mg/kg of ATM. Since it has been previously shown that these doses of DZP and ATM almost completely reversed the antinociception produced by 1 microgram/mouse of CCK8, the present results on the 2-DG uptake in the mouse brain are considered to further support the antagonism between CCK8 and DZP or ATM in the central nervous system. (+info)
Mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of the antitumor antibiotic anthramycin.
(13/25)Anthramycin, one of the pyrrolo(1,4)benzodiazepine antibiotics with potent antitumor activity, was tested for its effects on a number of genetic parameters. The results show that this antibiotic is nonmutagenic in the Ames strains of Salmonella typhimurium while mutagenic in only one and antimutagenic in the rest of the genes tested in the eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The antibiotic is, however, a potent recombinogen inasmuch as it induced mitotic crossing over, mitotic gene conversion, and possibly other chromosomal alterations in a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae. These studies emphasize the need for a battery of test systems including eukaryotic organisms to detect the genetic activity of certain antitumor drugs. The importance of considering data distinguishing between highly mutagenic and poorly mutagenic cancer chemotherapeutic agents is also discussed. (+info)
Abbeymycin, a new anthramycin-type antibiotic produced by a streptomycete.
(14/25)A new antibiotic, abbeymycin, has been isolated from Streptomyces sp. AB-999F-52. The structure of abbeymycin was assigned on the basis of NMR, mass spectrometric and UV spectral data. Abbeymycin has weak activity against a limited number of anaerobic bacteria. (+info)
Anthramycin inhibition of restriction endonuclease cleavage and its use as a reversible blocking agent in DNA constructions.
(15/25)Anthramycin can form a stable complex with DNA which does not dissociate upon repeated ethanol precipitations. The complex forms in less than one hour at pH 5.5. Bound anthramycin seems to be located in the minor groove of the DNA helix in the anthramycin DNA complex, since methylation of adenosine residues at N-3 by dimethylsulfate is reduced. The anthramycin-DNA complex is resistant to digestion by an excess of a number of restriction enzymes. Anthramycin can be removed from DNA by incubation at acid pH. The released DNA can then be cleaved by restriction enzymes. Anthramycin-DNA complexes can be acted upon by T4 polynucleotide ligase to form longer DNA molecules. The ability of anthramycin to form a stable but reversible complex which is not cleaved by restriction enzymes but can engage in joining reactions may allow a wider variety of DNA fragments to be more readily constructed in vitro. (+info)
The reaction of anthramycin with DNA. Proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the structure of the anthramycin-DNA adduct.
(16/25)Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are used to confirm the points of attachment of anthramycin to DNA. Using 13C NMR spectroscopy, the C-11 resonance of anthramycin is shown to undergo a 16-ppm upfield shift upon formation of a covalent bond with DNA, indicative of an aminal linkage at that position. The site of attachment on the DNA is determined using the self-complementary oligodeoxyribonucleotide d-(ApTpGpCpApT) as a DNA model. Proton NMR, both in H2O and D2O solutions, provides a direct characterization of the anthramycin-oligonucleotide adduct. Upon covalent attachment to the duplex, a loss in the helical symmetry is observed, resulting in a doubling of several of the oligonucleotide resonances. Examination of the data confirms that the point of attachment of the anthramycin to the d-(ApTpGpCpApT) is at the guanine-NH2-position, consistent with the model proposed by Hurley and Petrusek (Hurley, L. H., and Petrusek, R. L. (1979) Nature (Lond.) 282, 529-531) and Petrusek et al. (Petrusek, R. L., Anderson, G. L., Garner, T. F., Fannin, Q. L., Kaplan, D. J., Zimmer, S. G., and Hurley, L. H. (1981) Biochemistry 20, 1111-1119). (+info)