(1/757) Novel selective inhibitors for human topoisomerase I, BM2419-1 and -2 derived from saintopin.
Compounds BM2419-1 and -2 were isolated from a culture broth of a fungus Paecilomyces sp. BM2419. It was shown that these novel compounds were artifacts derived from saintopin, a dual inhibitor of topoisomerase I and II by independent processes. In the human topoisomerase I inhibition assay using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, BM2419-1 and -2 inhibited selectively the yeast growth dependent on human topoisomerase I induction with IC50 values of 0.3 ng/ml and 6.0 ng/ml, respectively. (+info)
(2/757) Induction of MDR1 gene expression by anthracycline analogues in a human drug resistant leukaemia cell line.
The effects of 4-demethoxydaunorubicin (idarubicin, IDA) and MX2, a new morpholino-anthracycline, on up-regulation of the MDR1 gene in the low-level multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line CEM/A7R were compared at similar concentrations (IC10, IC50 and IC90) over a short time exposure (4 and 24 h). The chemosensitivity of each drug was determined by a 3-day cell growth inhibition assay. Compared with epirubicin (EPI), IDA and MX2 were 17- and eightfold more effective in the CEM/A7R line respectively. No cross-resistance to 5-FU was seen in the CEM/A7R line. Verapamil (5 microM) and PSC 833 (1 microM), which dramatically reversed resistance to EPI in the CEM/A7R line, had no sensitizing effect on the resistance of this line to MX2, but slightly decreased resistance to IDA. The sensitivity to 5-FU was unchanged by these modulators. The induction of MDR1 mRNA expression by IDA, MX2 and 5-FU was analysed by Northern blotting and semiquantitatively assessed by scanning Northern blots on a phosphorimager. The relative level of MDR1 expression was expressed as a ratio of MDR1 mRNA to the internal RNA control glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). IDA, MX2 and 5-FU differentially up-regulated MDR1 mRNA in the CEM/A7R line in a dose-dependent manner. Both IDA and MX2 induced MDR1 expression within 4 h. 5-FU up-regulated MDR1 expression only when drug exposure was prolonged to 24 h. Based on MRK 16 binding, flow cytometric analysis of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression paralleled the increase in MDR1 mRNA levels. For the three anthracyclines, the increase in MDR1 expression was stable in cells grown in the absence of drug for more than 3 weeks after drug treatment. The induction of MDR1 expression by 5-FU was transient, associated with a rapid decrease in the increased Pgp levels which returned to baseline 72 h after the removal of 5-FU. This study demonstrates that MDR1 expression can be induced by analogues of anthracyclines not pumped by Pgp, and that this induction appears to be stable despite a 3-week drug-free period. (+info)
(3/757) Characterization of aklavinone-11-hydroxylase from Streptomyces purpurascens.
Aklavinone-11-hydroxylase (RdmE) is a FAD monooxygenase participating in the biosynthesis of daunorubicin, doxorubicin and rhodomycins. The rdmE gene encodes an enzyme of 535 amino acids. The sequence of the Streptomyces purpurascens enzyme is similar to other Streptomyces aromatic polyketide hydroxylases. We overexpressed the gene in Streptomyces lividans and purified aklavinone-11-hydroxylase to apparent homogeneity with four chromatographic steps utilizing a kinetic photometric enzyme assay. The enzyme is active as the monomer with a molecular mass of 60 kDa; it hydroxylates aklavinone and other anthracyclinones. Aklavinone-11-hydroxylase can use both NADH and NADPH as coenzyme but it is slowly inactivated in the presence of NADH. The apparent Km for NADPH is 2 mM and for aklavinone 10 microM. The enzyme is inactivated in the presence of phenylglyoxal and 2,3-butanedione. NADPH protects against inactivation of aklavinone-11-hydroxylase by phenylglyoxal. (+info)
(4/757) Barminomycin forms GC-specific adducts and virtual interstrand crosslinks with DNA.
The sequence specificity of the binding of barminomycin (SN-07 chromophore) to DNA was investigated using an in vitro transcription assay. It was found that this compound formed blockages to transcription, and these blocks were highly selective for 5'-GC sequences. The half-lives of the first seven transcriptional blockages at 37 degrees C were 14-130 min, plus one site >>200 min, with widely varying levels of essentially permanent blockages at each site (0-100%; average of 40%), indicative of considerable dependence on flanking sequences of adducts stability at individual GC sites. Barminomycin was also shown to form DNA virtual (i.e. functional) interstrand crosslinks. Such crosslinks were also relatively heat stable, with 40% of the DNA remaining crosslinked after heating at 90 degrees C for 5 min. The barminomycin-DNA adducts and crosslinks appear to be essentially identical to those formed between adriamycin and DNA. Whereas adriamycin requires prior activation with formaldehyde in order to form adducts and crosslinks, barminomycin behaves in all respects as if it is a pre-activated form of adriamycin. (+info)
(5/757) Development of a self-cloning system for Actinomadura verrucosospora and identification of polyketide synthase genes essential for production of the angucyclic antibiotic pradimicin.
A self-cloning system for Actinomadura verrucosospora, a producer of the angucyclic antibiotic pradimicin A (PRM A), has been developed. The system is based on reproducible and reliable protoplasting and regeneration conditions for A. verrucosospora and a novel plasmid vector that consists of a replicon from a newly found Actinomadura plasmid and a selectable marker cloned from the Actinomadura strain. The system has an efficiency of more than 10(5) CFU/microgram of DNA. Using this system, we have cloned and identified the polyketide synthase (PKS) genes essential for PRM A biosynthesis from A. verrucosospora. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 3.5-kb SalI-SphI fragment showed that ketosynthase subunits (open reading frame 1 [ORF1] and ORF2) of the essential PKS genes have strong similarities (59 to 89%) to those for angucyclic antibiotic biosynthesis. (+info)
(6/757) Altered multidrug resistance phenotype caused by anthracycline analogues and cytosine arabinoside in myeloid leukemia.
The expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is often increased in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, little is known of the regulation of Pgp expression by cytotoxics in AML. We examined whether Pgp expression and function in leukemic blasts was altered after a short exposure to cytotoxics. Blasts were isolated from 19 patients with AML (15 patients) or chronic myeloid leukemia in blastic transformation (BT-CML, 4 patients). Pgp expression and function were analyzed by flow cytometric analysis of MRK 16 binding and Rhodamine 123 retention, respectively. At equitoxic concentrations, ex vivo exposure for 16 hours to the anthracyclines epirubicin (EPI), daunomycin (DAU), idarubicin (IDA), or MX2 or the nucleoside analogue cytosine arabinoside (AraC) differentially upregulated MDR1/Pgp expression in Pgp-negative and Pgp-positive blast cells. In Pgp-negative blasts, all four anthracyclines and AraC significantly increased Pgp expression (P =.01) and Pgp function (P =.03). In contrast, MX2, DAU, and AraC were the most potent in inducing Pgp expression and function in Pgp positive blasts (P <.05). A good correlation between increased Pgp expression and function was observed in Pgp-negative (r =.90, P =.0001) and Pgp-positive blasts (r =.77, P =.0002). This increase in Pgp expression and function was inhibited by the addition of 1 micromol/L PSC 833 to blast cells at the time of their exposure to these cytotoxics. In 1 patient with AML, an increase in Pgp levels was observed in vivo at 4 and 16 hours after the administration of standard chemotherapy with DAU/AraC. Upregulation of Pgp expression was also demonstrated ex vivo in blasts harvested from this patient before the commencement of treatment. In 3 other cases (1 patient with AML and 2 with BT-CML) in which blasts were Pgp negative at the time of initial clinical presentation, serial samples at 1 to 5 months after chemotherapy showed the presence of Pgp-positive blasts. All 3 patients had refractory disease. Interestingly, in all 3 cases, upregulation of Pgp by cytotoxics was demonstrated ex vivo in blasts harvested at the time of presentation. These data suggest that upregulation of the MDR1 gene may represent a normal response of leukemic cells to cytotoxic stress and may contribute to clinical drug resistance. (+info)
(7/757) Correlation between the kinetics of anthracycline uptake and the resistance factor in cancer cells expressing the multidrug resistance protein or the P-glycoprotein.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in model systems is known to be conferred by two different integral proteins, the 170-kDa P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and the 190-kDa multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1). One possible pharmacological approach to overcome drug resistance is the use of specific inhibitors, which enhance the cytotoxicity of known antineoplastic agents. However, while many compounds have been proven to be very efficient in inhibiting Pgp activity only some of them are able to inhibit MRP1. The other likely approach is based on the design and synthesis of new non-cross-resistant drugs with physicochemical properties favoring the uptake of the drug by the resistant cells. The intracellular drug retention influences its cytotoxic effect. The level of the intracellular drug content is a function of the amount of drug transported inside the cell (influx) and the amount of drug expelled from the cell (efflux). In this work, the kinetics of drug uptake and the kinetics of active efflux of several anthracycline derivatives in both Pgp expressing K562/Adr cells and MRP1 expressing GLC4/Adr cells was determined. Our data have shown that in both cell lines there is no correlation between the resistance factor and the kinetics of drug efflux by these pumping systems. However, a very good correlation between the resistance factor and the kinetics of drug uptake has been established in both cell lines: the resistance factor decreases when the kinetics of drug uptake increases. This work has clearly shown that when the rate of transmembrane transport of anthracycline is high enough, the efflux mediated by the protein transporter is not able to pace with it. The protein transporter essentially operates in a futile cycle and the resistance factor is tending to one. It does not mean, however, that when the resistance factor is close to one the anthracycline is not transported by the pump. (+info)
(8/757) Localization of a substrate specificity domain in the multidrug resistance protein.
Multidrug resistance protein (MRP) confers resistance to a number of natural product chemotherapeutic agents. It is also a high affinity transporter of some physiological conjugated organic anions such as cysteinyl leukotriene C(4) and the cholestatic estrogen, 17beta-estradiol 17(beta-D-glucuronide) (E(2)17betaG). We have shown that the murine orthologue of MRP (mrp), unlike the human protein, does not confer resistance to common anthracyclines and is a relatively poor transporter of E(2)17betaG. We have taken advantage of these functional differences to identify region(s) of MRP involved in mediating anthracycline resistance and E(2)17betaG transport by generating mrp/MRP hybrid proteins. All hybrid proteins conferred resistance to the Vinca alkaloid, vincristine, when transfected into human embryonic kidney cells. However, only those in which the COOH-terminal third of mrp had been replaced with the corresponding region of MRP-conferred resistance to the anthracyclines, doxorubicin, and epirubicin. Exchange of smaller segments of the COOH-terminal third of the mouse protein by replacement of either amino acids 959-1187 or 1188-1531 with those of MRP produced proteins capable of conferring some level of resistance to the anthracyclines tested. All hybrid proteins transported cysteinyl leukotriene C(4) with similar efficiencies. In contrast, only those containing the COOH-terminal third of MRP transported E(2)17betaG with an efficiency comparable with that of the intact human protein. The results demonstrate that differences in primary structure of the highly conserved COOH-terminal third of mrp and MRP are important determinants of the inability of the murine protein to confer anthracycline resistance and its relatively poor ability to transport E(2)17betaG. (+info)