Carnosine stimulates vimentin expression in cultured rat fibroblasts.
Two-dimensional electrophoretic gel profiles were compared between rat 3Y1 fibroblasts cultured in the presence and absence of 30 mM L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) for one week without any replenishment of medium. While a number of cellular proteins changed their expression levels by the addition of carnosine, we identified one of the most prominently varied proteins as vimentin. Immunoblot analysis with anti-vimentin antibody demonstrated that the vimentin levels increased about 2-fold after one-week culture in the presence of carnosine. We also confirmed that the increase of vimentin expression was dependent on the concentration of carnosine added to the medium. Moreover, when cultured cells were stained with anti-vimentin antibody and observed by light microscopy, most cells grown in the presence of carnosine were found to have markedly developed vimentin filaments. The increase of vimentin expression was also observed by adding with carnosine related dipeptides, N-acetylcarnosine and anserine. (+info)
Hydrogen peroxide-mediated Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase fragmentation: protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine.
The fragmentation of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) was observed during incubation with H(2)O(2). Hydroxyl radical scavengers such as sodium azide, formate and mannitol protected the fragmentation of Cu,Zn-SOD. These results suggested that *OH was implicated in the hydrogen peroxide-mediated Cu,Zn-SOD fragmentation. Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine have been proposed to act as anti-oxidants in vivo. We investigated whether three compounds could protect the fragmentation of Cu,Zn-SOD induced by H(2)O(2). The results showed that carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine significantly protected the fragmentation of Cu,Zn-SOD. All three compounds also protected the loss of enzyme activity induced by H(2)O(2). Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine effectively inhibited the formation of *OH by the Cu,Zn-SOD/H(2)O(2) system. These results suggest that carnosine and related compounds can protect the hydrogen peroxide-mediated Cu,Zn-SOD fragmentation through the scavenging of *OH. (+info)
A re-evaluation of the antioxidant activity of purified carnosine.
The antioxidant activity of carnosine has been re-evaluated due to the presence of contaminating hydrazine in commercial carnosine preparations. Purified carnosine is capable of scavenging peroxyl radicals. Inhibition of the oxidation of phosphatidylcholine liposomes by purified carnosine is greater in the presence of copper than iron, a phenomenon likely to be due to the copper chelating properties of carnosine. Purified carnosine is capable of forming adducts with aldehydic lipid oxidation products. Adduct formation is greatest for alpha,beta-monounsaturated followed by polyunsaturated and saturated aldehydes. While the ability of carnosine to form adducts with aldehydic lipid oxidation products is lower than other compounds such as glutathione, the higher concentrations of carnosine in skeletal muscle are likely to make it the most important molecule that forms aldehyde adducts. Monitoring changes in carnosine concentrations in oxidizing skeletal muscle shows that carnosine oxidation does not occur until the later stages of oxidation suggesting that carnosine may not be as effective free radical scavenger in vivo as other antioxidants like alpha-tocopherol. (+info)
Effect of carnosine and related compounds on the inactivation of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by modification of fructose and glycolaldehyde.
Glycolaldehyde, an intermediate of the Maillard reaction, and fructose, which is mainly derived from the polyol pathway, rapidly inactivate human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) at the physiological concentration. We employed this inactivation with these carbonyl compounds as a model glycation reaction to investigate whether carnosine and its related compounds could protect the enzyme from inactivation. Of eight derivatives examined, histidine, Gly-His, carnosine and Ala-His inhibited the inactivation of the enzyme by fructose (p<0.001), and Gly-His, Ala-His, anserine, carnosine, and homocarnosine exhibited a marked protective effect against the inactivation by glycolaldehyde (p<0.001). The carnosine-related compounds that showed this highly protective effect against the inactivation by glycolaldehyde had high reactivity with glycolaldehyde and high scavenging activity toward the hydroxyl radical as common properties. On the other hand, the carnosine-related compounds that had a protective effect against the inactivation by fructose showed significant hydroxyl radical-scavenging ability. These results indicate that carnosine and such related compounds as Gly-His and Ala-His are effective anti-glycating agents for human Cu,Zn-SOD and that the effectiveness is based not only on high reactivity with carbonyl compounds but also on hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. (+info)
Protection by carnosine-related dipeptides against hydrogen peroxide-mediated ceruloplasmin modification.
Carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine are present in high concentrations in the muscle and brain of many animals and humans. Previous studies showed that these compounds have an antioxidant function. We investigated the protective effects of carnosine and related compounds on the modification of human ceruloplasmin that is induced by H2O2. Carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine significantly inhibited the fragmentation and inactivation of ceruloplasmin that is induced by H2O2. All three compounds also inhibited the release of copper ion from protein, and the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the ceruloplasmin/H2O2 system. These compounds inhibited the fragmentation of human serum albumin that is induced by the copper-catalyzed oxidation system, as well as by the iron-catalyzed oxidation system. These results suggest that carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine might protect ceruloplasmin against H2O2-mediated oxidative damage through a combination of copper chelation and free radical scavenging. (+info)
Protective effects of carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine against peroxyl radical-mediated Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase modification.
Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), homocarnosine (gamma-amino-butyryl-L-histidine) and anserine (beta-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) have been proposed to act as anti-oxidants in vivo. The protective effects of carnosine and related compounds against the oxidative damage of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) by peroxyl radicals generated from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) were studied. The oxidative damage to Cu,Zn-SOD by AAPH-derived radicals led to protein fragmentation, which is associated with the inactivation of enzyme. Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine significantly inhibited the fragmentation and inactivation of Cu,Zn-SOD by AAPH. All three compounds also inhibited the release of copper ions from the enzyme and the formation of carbonyl compounds in AAPH-treated Cu,Zn-SOD. These compounds inhibited the fragmentation of other protein without copper ion. The results suggest that carnosine and related compounds act as the copper chelator and peroxyl radical scavenger to protect the protein fragmentation. Oxidation of amino acid residues in Cu,Zn-SOD induced by AAPH were significantly inhibited by carnosine and related compounds. It is proposed that carnosine and related dipeptides might be explored as potential therapeutic agents for pathologies that involve Cu,Zn-SOD modification mediated by peroxyl radicals. (+info)
Carnosine and related dipeptides protect human ceruloplasmin against peroxyl radical-mediated modification.
Ceruloplasmin (CP) is the major plasma antioxidant and copper transport protein. In a previous study, we showed that the aggregation of human ceruloplasmin was induced by peroxyl radicals. We investigated the effects of antioxidant dipeptides carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine on peroxyl radical-mediated ceruloplasmin modification. Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine significantly inhibited the aggregation of CP induced by peroxyl radicals. When CP was incubated with peroxyl radicals in the presence of three compounds, ferroxidase activity, as measured by the activity staining method, was protected. All three compounds also inhibited the formation of dityrosine in peroxyl radicals-treated CP. The results suggest that carnosine and related compounds act as peroxyl radical scavenger to protect the protein modification. It is proposed that carnosine and related peptides might be explored as potential therapeutic agents for pathologies that involve CP modification mediated by peroxyl radicals generated in the lipid peroxidation. (+info)
Enhanced oligomerization of the alpha-synuclein mutant by the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxide system.
The alpha-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies that are found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Also, two point mutations in this protein, A53T and A30P, are associated with rare familial forms of the disease. We investigated whether there are differences in the Cu,Zn-SOD and hydrogen peroxide system mediated-protein modification between the wild-type and mutant alpha-synucleins. When alpha-synuclein was incubated with both Cu,Zn-SOD and H2O2, then the amount of A53T mutant oligomerization increased relative to that of the wild-type protein. This process was inhibited by radical scavenger, spin-trapping agent, and copper chelator. These results suggest that the oligomerization of alpha-synuclein is mediated by the generation of the hydroxyl radical through the metal-catalyzed reaction. The dityrosine formation of the A53T mutant protein was enhanced relative to that of the wild-type protein. Antioxidant molecules, carnosine, and anserine effectively inhibited the wild-type and mutant proteins' oligomerization. Therefore, these compounds may be explored as potential therapeutic agents for PD patients. The present experiments, in part, may provide an explanation for the association between PD and the alpha-synuclein mutant. (+info)