Biologic and biochemical analyses of p16(INK4a) mutations from primary tumors. (9/741)

BACKGROUND: Point mutations in the tumor suppressor gene p16(INK4a) (also known as p16, CDKN2, MTS1, and INK4a) are found in many tumor types. Because the function of the products of these naturally occurring mutants has not been fully explored, we investigated the functional activities of a wide range of naturally occurring p16 mutant proteins. METHODS: Sixteen cancer-associated p16 mutant proteins, resulting from missense mutations, were characterized for their ability to bind and inhibit the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6) and to induce cell cycle arrest in G(1) phase. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Among 16 mutants analyzed, nine had detectable functional defects. Three mutants (D84V, D84G, and R87P) had defects in CDK binding, kinase inhibition, and cell cycle arrest. The corresponding mutations are located in the third ankyrin repeat in a highly conserved region believed to form the CDK binding cleft. Three mutants (P48L, D74N, and R87L) had defects in kinase inhibition and cell cycle arrest. Among the 10 mutants with normal CDK binding and inhibitory activity, three mutants (N71S, R80L, and H83Y) had defects only in their ability to induce cell cycle arrest. Thus, p16 mutant proteins that retain CDK4 and CDK6 binding may have more subtle functional defects. All nine mutations leading to functional impairments mapped to the central portion of the p16 protein. Ankyrin repeats II and III appear more critical to p16 function, and mutations in ankyrin repeats I and IV are less likely to disrupt p16 function.  (+info)

Coinheritance of Gilbert syndrome increases the risk for developing gallstones in patients with hereditary spherocytosis. (10/741)

The precocious formation of bilirubinate gallstones is the most common complication of hereditary spherocytosis (HS), and the prevention of this problem represents a major impetus for splenectomy in many patients with compensated hemolysis. Because Gilbert syndrome has been considered a risk factor for gallstone formation, there are reasons for postulating that the association of this common inherited disorder of hepatic bilirubin metabolism with HS could increase cholelithiasis. To test this hypothesis, 103 children with mild to moderate HS who, from age 1, have undergone a liver and biliary tree ultrasonography every year, were retrospectively examined. The 2-bp (TA) insertion within the promoter of the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase gene (UGT1A1), associated with Gilbert syndrome, was screened. The risk of developing gallstones was statistically different among the 3 groups of patients: homozygotes for the normal UGT1A1 allele, heterozygotes, and homozygotes for the allele with the TA insertion. Fitting a Cox regression model, in fact, a statistically significant hazard ratio of 2.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.31 to 3.66) was estimated from one to the next of these genetic classes. The individual proneness to form gallstones from TA insertion in the TATA-box of the UGT1A1 promoter should be considered during the follow-up of patients with HS. Although patients with HS were the only ones studied, extrapolating these data to patients who have different forms of inherited (eg, thalassemia, intraerythrocytic enzymatic deficiency) or acquired (eg, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, hemolysis from mechanical heart valve replacement) chronic hemolysis can be warranted.  (+info)

NF-kappaB subunit p65 binds to 53BP2 and inhibits cell death induced by 53BP2. (11/741)

Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor that controls the expression of many cellular and viral genes. The p65 (RelA) subunit plays a critical role as a transcriptional activator and recent observations have highlighted its role in the control of apoptosis. Here we report that 53BP2, a protein previously identified by interaction with wild type p53 and Bcl-2, also binds to p65 in a yeast two-hybrid system. This specific interaction was confirmed by pull-down assay in vitro and by a mammalian two-hybrid assay in vivo. We observed that full-length 53BP2 fused to GFP had a punctate distribution in cytoplasm, predominantly in perinuclear region whereas the N-terminal 53BP2 localized in cytoplasm and C-terminal 53BP2 localized in the nucleus. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GFP-53BP2 induced apoptosis in transiently transfected cells. Neither the N-terminal nor the C-terminal of 53BP2 fused to GFP induced cell death. Interestingly, co-transfection with a p65 expression plasmid significantly inhibited 53BP2-induced cell death. The previous findings that 53BP2 bound to p53 and Bcl-2 together with our present observations suggest that 53BP2 may play a central role in the regulation of apoptosis and cell growth.  (+info)

Evidence for an interaction between adducin and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase: relation to genetic hypertension. (12/741)

Adducin point mutations are associated with genetic hypertension in Milan hypertensive strain (MHS) rats and in humans. In transfected cells, adducin affects actin cytoskeleton organization and increases the Na(+)-K(+)-pump rate. The present study has investigated whether rat and human adducin polymorphisms differently modulate rat renal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in vitro. We report the following. 1) Both rat and human adducins stimulate Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, with apparent affinity in tens of nanomolar concentrations. 2) MHS and Milan normotensive strain (MNS) adducins raise the apparent ATP affinity for Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. 3) The mechanism of action of adducin appears to involve a selective acceleration of the rate of the conformational change E(2) (K) --> E(1) (Na) or E(2)(K). ATP --> E(1)Na. ATP. 4) Apparent affinities for mutant rat and human adducins are significantly higher than those for wild types. 5) Recombinant human alpha- and beta-adducins stimulate Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, as do the COOH-terminal tails, and the mutant proteins display higher affinities than the wild types. 6) The cytoskeletal protein ankyrin, which is known to bind to Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, also stimulates enzyme activity, whereas BSA is without effect; the effects of adducin and ankyrin when acting together are not additive. 7) Pig kidney medulla microsomes appear to contain endogenous adducin; in contrast with purified pig kidney Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, which does not contain adducin, added adducin stimulates the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity of microsomes only about one-half as much as that of purified Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Our findings strongly imply the existence of a direct and specific interaction between adducin and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in vitro and also suggest the possibility of such an interaction in intact renal membranes.  (+info)

Somatostatin receptor interacting protein defines a novel family of multidomain proteins present in human and rodent brain. (13/741)

By using the yeast two-hybrid system we identified a novel protein from the human brain interacting with the C terminus of somatostatin receptor subtype 2. This protein termed somatostatin receptor interacting protein is characterized by a novel domain structure, consisting of six N-terminal ankyrin repeats followed by SH3 and PDZ domains, several proline-rich regions, and a C-terminal sterile alpha motif. It consists of 2185 amino acid residues encoded by a 9-kilobase pair mRNA; several splice variants have been detected in human and rat cDNA libraries. Sequence comparison suggests that the novel multidomain protein, together with cortactin-binding protein, forms a family of cytoskeletal anchoring proteins. Fractionation of rat brain membranes indicated that somatostatin receptor interacting protein is enriched in the postsynaptic density fraction. The interaction of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 with its interacting protein was verified by overlay assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments from transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 and the interacting protein display a striking overlap of their expression patterns in the rat brain. Interestingly, in the hippocampus the mRNA for somatostatin receptor interacting protein was not confined to the cell bodies but was also observed in the molecular layer, suggesting a dendritic localization of this mRNA.  (+info)

The complete DNA sequence of myxoma virus. (14/741)

Myxomatosis in European rabbits is a severely debilitating disease characterized by profound systemic cellular immunosuppression and a high rate of mortality. The causative agent, myxoma virus, is a member of the poxvirus family and prototype of the Leporipoxvirus genus. As a major step toward defining the genetic strategies by which the virus circumvents host antiviral responses, the genomic DNA sequence of myxoma virus, strain Lausanne, was determined. A total of 171 open reading frames were assigned to cover the 161.8-kb genome, including two copies each of the 12 genes that map within the 11.5-kb terminal inverted repeats. Database searches revealed a central core of approximately 120 kb that encodes more than 100 genes that exhibit close relationships to the conserved genes of members of other poxvirus genera. Open reading frames with predicted signal sequences, localization motifs, or homology to known proteins with immunomodulatory or host-range functions were examined more extensively for predicted features such as hydrophobic regions, nucleic acid binding domains, ankyrin repeats, serpin signatures, lectin domains. and structural cysteine spacings. As a result, several novel, potentially immunomodulatory proteins have been identified, including a family with multiple ankyrin-repeat domains, an OX-2 like member of the neural cell adhesion molecule family, a third myxoma serpin, a putative chemokine receptor fragment, two natural killer receptor-like species, and a variety of species with domains closely related to diverse host immune regulatory proteins. Coupled with the genomic sequencing of the related leporipoxvirus Shope fibroma virus, this work affirms the existence of a conserved complement of poxvirus-specific core genes and expands the growing repertoire of virus genes that confer the unique capacity of each poxvirus family member to counter the immune responses of the infected host.  (+info)

Integrin-linked kinase is localized to cell-matrix focal adhesions but not cell-cell adhesion sites and the focal adhesion localization of integrin-linked kinase is regulated by the PINCH-binding ANK repeats. (15/741)

Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a ubiquitously expressed protein serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in integrin-, growth factor- and Wnt-signaling pathways. In this study, we show that ILK is a constituent of cell-matrix focal adhesions. ILK was recruited to focal adhesions in all types of cells examined upon adhesion to a variety of extracellular matrix proteins. By contrast, ILK was absent in E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adherens junctions. In previous studies, we have identified PINCH, a protein consisting of five LIM domains, as an ILK binding protein. We demonstrate in this study that the ILK-PINCH interaction requires the N-terminal-most ANK repeat (ANK1) of ILK and one (the C-terminal) of the two zinc-binding modules within the LIM1 domain of PINCH. The ILK ANK repeats domain, which is capable of interacting with PINCH in vitro, could also form a complex with PINCH in vivo. However, the efficiency of the complex formation or the stability of the complex was markedly reduced in the absence of the C-terminal domain of ILK. The PINCH binding defective ANK1 deletion ILK mutant, unlike the wild-type ILK, was unable to localize and cluster in focal adhesions, suggesting that the interaction with PINCH is necessary for focal adhesion localization and clustering of ILK. The N-terminal ANK repeats domain, however, is not sufficient for mediating focal adhesion localization of ILK, as an ILK mutant containing the ANK repeats domain but lacking the C-terminal integrin binding site failed to localize in focal adhesions. These results suggest that focal adhesions are a major subcellular compartment where ILK functions in intracellular signal transduction, and provide important evidence for a critical role of PINCH and integrins in regulating ILK cellular function.  (+info)

Ankyrin-B is required for intracellular sorting of structurally diverse Ca2+ homeostasis proteins. (16/741)

This report describes a congenital myopathy and major loss of thymic lymphocytes in ankyrin-B (-/-) mice as well as dramatic alterations in intracellular localization of key components of the Ca(2+) homeostasis machinery in ankyrin-B (-/-) striated muscle and thymus. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and SR/T-tubule junctions are apparently preserved in a normal distribution in ankyrin-B (-/-) skeletal muscle based on electron microscopy and the presence of a normal pattern of triadin and dihydropyridine receptor. Therefore, the abnormal localization of SR/ER Ca ATPase (SERCA) and ryanodine receptors represents a defect in intracellular sorting of these proteins in skeletal muscle. Extrapolation of these observations suggests defective targeting as the basis for abnormal localization of ryanodine receptors, IP3 receptors and SERCA in heart, and of IP3 receptors in the thymus of ankyrin-B (-/-) mice. Mis-sorting of SERCA 2 and ryanodine receptor 2 in ankyrin-B (-/-) cardiomyocytes is rescued by expression of 220-kD ankyrin-B, demonstrating that lack of the 220-kD ankyrin-B polypeptide is the primary defect in these cells. Ankyrin-B is associated with intracellular vesicles, but is not colocalized with the bulk of SERCA 1 or ryanodine receptor type 1 in skeletal muscle. These data provide the first evidence of a physiological requirement for ankyrin-B in intracellular targeting of the calcium homeostasis machinery of striated muscle and immune system, and moreover, support a catalytic role that does not involve permanent stoichiometric complexes between ankyrin-B and targeted proteins. Ankyrin-B is a member of a family of adapter proteins implicated in restriction of diverse proteins to specialized plasma membrane domains. Similar mechanisms involving ankyrins may be essential for segregation of functionally defined proteins within specialized regions of the plasma membrane and within the Ca(2+) homeostasis compartment of the ER.  (+info)