Drosophila beta spectrin functions independently of alpha spectrin to polarize the Na,K ATPase in epithelial cells. (25/741)

Spectrin has been proposed to function as a sorting machine that concentrates interacting proteins such as the Na,K ATPase within specialized plasma membrane domains of polarized cells. However, little direct evidence to support this model has been obtained. Here we used a genetic approach to directly test the requirement for the beta subunit of the alphabeta spectrin molecule in morphogenesis and function of epithelial cells in Drosophila. beta Spectrin mutations were lethal during late embryonic/early larval development and they produced subtle defects in midgut morphology and stomach acid secretion. The polarized distributions of alphabeta(H) spectrin and ankyrin were not significantly altered in beta spectrin mutants, indicating that the two isoforms of Drosophila spectrin assemble independently of one another, and that ankyrin is upstream of alphabeta spectrin in the spectrin assembly pathway. In contrast, beta spectrin mutations had a striking effect on the basolateral accumulation of the Na,K ATPase. The results establish a role for beta spectrin in determining the subcellular distribution of the Na, K ATPase and, unexpectedly, this role is independent of alpha spectrin.  (+info)

The L1-type cell adhesion molecule neuroglian influences the stability of neural ankyrin in the Drosophila embryo but not its axonal localization. (26/741)

Ankyrins are linker proteins, which connect various membrane proteins, including members of the L1 family of neural cell adhesion molecules, with the submembranous actin-spectrin skeleton. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a second, novel Drosophila ankyrin gene (Dank2) that appears to be the result of a gene duplication event during arthropod evolution. The Drosophila L1-type protein neuroglian interacts with products from both Drosophila ankyrin genes. Whereas the previously described ankyrin gene is ubiquitously expressed during embryogenesis, the expression of Dank2 is restricted to the nervous system in the Drosophila embryo. The absence of neuroglian protein in a neuroglian null mutant line causes decreased levels of Dank2 protein in most neuronal cells. This suggests that neuroglian is important for the stability of Dank2 protein. However, neuroglian is not required for Dank2 axonal localization. In temperature-sensitive neuroglian mutants in which neuroglian protein is mislocated at the restrictive temperature to an intracellular location in the neuronal soma, Dank2 protein can still be detected along embryonic nerve tracts.  (+info)

High levels of E-/P-cadherin: correlation with decreased apical polarity of Na/K ATPase in bovine RPE cells in situ. (27/741)

PURPOSE: The adherens junction protein E-cadherin induces a basolateral polarity of Na/K ATPase in most epithelial cells that express it, whereas in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, Na/K ATPase is largely apical. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the distribution of Na/K ATPase differs in RPE cells in situ, that differ in levels of junctional E-cadherin. METHODS: Bovine RPE cells in situ were immunostained with an E-cadherin antibody (which has some cross-reactivity with the closely related epithelial cadherin P-cadherin), and RPE cells with different levels of junctional stain were identified. RPE cells with low and high E-/P-cadherin were costained in various combinations with Na/K ATPase and interacting proteins of the membrane cytoskeleton (ankyrin, fodrin, and actin) and analyzed by confocal imaging. RESULTS: Individual RPE cells within the same monolayer differed in amount of Na/K ATPase, with a lower frequency of high expressing cells in the area centralis. High expressing Na/K ATPase cells were found among cells with both low and high E-/P-cadherin levels. In cells with low E/P-cadherin, Na/K ATPase localized to apical microvilli, whereas in high E-/P-cadherin cells, Na/K ATPase was on basolateral surfaces in addition to microvilli. Actin staining showed that microvillar domains were smaller and that lateral membrane domains were taller in high E-/P-cadherin cells. In high but not low E-/P-cadherin cells, ankyrin and fodrin levels varied among cells, with a subset of cells showing distinctly higher expression. Both ankyrin and fodrin had complex subcellular distribution patterns, although they tended to be enriched basal to rather than apical to the adherens junction. Cells with high Na/K ATPase did not necessarily have commensurately higher levels of ankyrin or fodrin. Where both Na/K ATPase and ankyrin were high, they codistributed weakly in apical microvilli but more prominently on the basal cell surface. CONCLUSIONS: Within the same RPE monolayer, the polarity of Na/K ATPase differs among cells, with a more basal polarity found in cells with high levels of junctional E-/P-cadherin. The increased basal Na/K ATPase was due to a combination of a smaller microvillar domain, a taller lateral domain, and more basolateral staining for Na/K ATPase, perhaps because of an enrichment of a basal ankyrinfodrin membrane cytoskeleton with which Na/K ATPase is known to associate.  (+info)

Structural requirements for notch signalling with delta and serrate during the development and patterning of the wing disc of Drosophila. (28/741)

The delta and Serrate proteins interact with the extracellular domain of the Notch receptor and initiate signalling through the receptor. The two ligands are very similar in structure and have been shown to be interchangeable experimentally; however, loss of function analysis indicates that they have different functions during development and analysis of their signalling during wing development indicates that the Fringe protein can discriminate between the two ligands. This raises the possibility that the signalling of delta and Serrate through Notch requires different domains of the Notch protein. Here we have tested this possibility by examining the ability of delta and Serrate to interact and signal with Notch molecules in which different domains had been deleted. This analysis has shown that EGF-like repeats 11 and 12, the RAM-23 and cdc10/ankyrin repeats and the region C-terminal to the cdc10/ankyrin repeats of Notch are necessary for both delta and Serrate to signal via Notch. They also indicate, however, that delta and Serrate utilise EGF-like repeats 24-26 of Notch for signalling, but there are significant differences in the way they utilise these repeats.  (+info)

Receptor clustering drives polarized assembly of ankyrin. (29/741)

Expression of the L1 family cell adhesion molecule neuroglian in Drosophila S2 cells leads to cell aggregation and polarized ankyrin accumulation at sites of cell-cell contact. Thus neuroglian adhesion generates a spatial cue for polarized assembly of ankyrin and the spectrin cytoskeleton. Here we characterized a chimera of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of rat CD2 fused to the cytoplasmic domain of neuroglian. The chimera was used to test the hypothesis that clustering of neuroglian at sites of adhesion generates the signal that activates ankyrin binding. Abundant expression of the chimera at the plasma membrane was not a sufficient cue to drive ankyrin assembly, since ankyrin remained diffusely distributed throughout the cytoplasm of CD2-neuroglian-expressing cells. However, ankyrin became highly enriched at sites of antibody-induced capping of CD2-neuroglian. Spectrin codistributed with ankyrin at capped sites. A green fluorescent protein-tagged ankyrin was used to monitor ankyrin distribution in living cells. Enhanced green fluorescent protein-ankyrin behaved identically to antibody-stained endogenous ankyrin, proving that the polarized accumulation of ankyrin was not an artifact of fixing and staining cells. We propose a model in which clustering of neuroglian induces a conformational change in the cytoplasmic domain that drives polarized assembly of the spectrin cytoskeleton.  (+info)

A minimal ankyrin promoter linked to a human gamma-globin gene demonstrates erythroid specific copy number dependent expression with minimal position or enhancer dependence in transgenic mice. (30/741)

In red blood cells ankyrin (ANK-1) provides the primary linkage between the erythrocyte membrane skeleton and the plasma membrane. We have previously demonstrated that a 271-bp 5'-flanking region of the ANK-1 gene has promoter activity in erythroid, but not non-erythroid, cell lines. To determine whether the ankyrin promoter could direct erythroid-specific expression in vivo, we analyzed transgenic mice containing the ankyrin promoter fused to the human (A)gamma-globin gene. Sixteen of 17 lines expressed the transgene in erythroid cells indicating nearly position-independent expression. We also observed a significant correlation between the level of Ank/(A)gamma-globin mRNA and transgene copy number. The level of Ank/(A)gamma mRNA averaged 11% of mouse alpha-globin mRNA per gene copy at all developmental stages. The addition of the HS2 enhancer from the beta-globin locus control region to the Ank/(A)gamma-globin transgene resulted in Ank/(A)gamma-globin mRNA expression in embryonic and fetal erythroid cells in six of eight lines but resulted in absent or dramatically reduced levels of Ank/(A)gamma-globin mRNA in adult erythroid cells in eight of eight transgenic lines. These data indicate that the minimal ankyrin promoter contains all sequences necessary and sufficient for erythroid-specific, copy number-dependent, position-independent expression of the human (A)gamma-globin gene.  (+info)

Increased methyl esterification of altered aspartyl residues in erythrocyte membrane proteins in response to oxidative stress. (31/741)

Protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PCMT; EC 2. 1.1.77) catalyses the methyl esterification of the free alpha-carboxyl group of abnormal L-isoaspartyl residues, which occur spontaneously in protein and peptide substrates as a consequence of molecular ageing. The biological function of this transmethylation reaction is related to the repair or degradation of age-damaged proteins. Methyl ester formation in erythrocyte membrane proteins has also been used as a marker reaction to tag these abnormal residues and to monitor their increase associated with erythrocyte ageing diseases, such as hereditary spherocytosis, or cell stress (thermal or osmotic) conditions. The study shows that levels of L-isoaspartyl residues rise in membrane proteins of human erythrocytes exposed to oxidative stress, induced by t-butyl hydroperoxide or H2O2. The increase in malondialdehyde content confirmed that the cell membrane is a primary target of oxidative alterations. A parallel rise in the methaemoglobin content indicates that proteins are heavily affected by the molecular alterations induced by oxidative treatments in erythrocytes. Antioxidants largely prevented the increase in membrane protein methylation, underscoring the specificity of the effect. Conversely, we found that PCMT activity, consistent with its repair function, remained remarkably stable under oxidative conditions, while damaged membrane protein substrates increased significantly. The latter include ankyrin, band 4.1 and 4.2, and the integral membrane protein band 3 (the anion exchanger). The main target was found to be particularly protein 4.1, a crucial element in the maintenance of membrane-cytoskeleton network stability. We conclude that the increased formation/exposure of L-isoaspartyl residues is one of the major structural alterations occurring in erythrocyte membrane proteins as a result of an oxidative stress event. In the light of these and previous findings, the occurrence of isoaspartyl sites in membrane proteins as a key event in erythrocyte spleen conditioning and hemocatheresis is proposed.  (+info)

Ankyrin-Tiam1 interaction promotes Rac1 signaling and metastatic breast tumor cell invasion and migration. (32/741)

Tiam1 (T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1) is one of the known guanine nucleotide (GDP/GTP) exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho GTPases (e.g., Rac1) and is expressed in breast tumor cells (e.g., SP-1 cell line). Immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses indicate that Tiam1 and the cytoskeletal protein, ankyrin, are physically associated as a complex in vivo. In particular, the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) of ankyrin is responsible for Tiam1 binding. Biochemical studies and deletion mutation analyses indicate that the 11-amino acid sequence between amino acids 717 and 727 of Tiam1 ((717)GEGTDAVKRS(727)L) is the ankyrin-binding domain. Most importantly, ankyrin binding to Tiam1 activates GDP/GTP exchange on Rho GTPases (e.g., Rac1). Using an Escherichia coli-derived calmodulin-binding peptide (CBP)-tagged recombinant Tiam1 (amino acids 393-728) fragment that contains the ankyrin-binding domain, we have detected a specific binding interaction between the Tiam1 (amino acids 393-738) fragment and ankyrin in vitro. This Tiam1 fragment also acts as a potent competitive inhibitor for Tiam1 binding to ankyrin. Transfection of SP-1 cell with Tiam1 cDNAs stimulates all of the following: (1) Tiam1-ankyrin association in the membrane projection; (2) Rac1 activation; and (3) breast tumor cell invasion and migration. Cotransfection of SP1 cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Tiam1 fragment cDNA and Tiam1 cDNA effectively blocks Tiam1-ankyrin colocalization in the cell membrane, and inhibits GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1 by ankyrin-associated Tiam1 and tumor-specific phenotypes. These findings suggest that ankyrin-Tiam1 interaction plays a pivotal role in regulating Rac1 signaling and cytoskeleton function required for oncogenic signaling and metastatic breast tumor cell progression.  (+info)