No impact from active dissemination of the Ottawa Ankle Rules: further evidence of the need for local implementation of practice guidelines.
BACKGROUND: Local implementation strategies are often required to promote consistent adherence to clinical guidelines, but they are time consuming and expensive. The authors tested an educational intervention designed to increase use of the Ottawa Ankle Rules, a widely publicized set of clinical guidelines previously shown to reduce the use of radiography for diagnosis of acute ankle injuries. METHODS: The study consisted of a quasi-experimental, before-and-after comparative analysis. Trained experts provided 1-hour educational sessions and supplied resource materials on the Ottawa Ankle Rules to health care professionals from 63 Ontario hospitals. Participants were asked to evaluate the intervention. The authors then compared, for periods before and after the educational sessions, the use of ankle radiography for adults with acute ankle injury in 10 hospitals that received the educational intervention and reported no (n = 5) or some (n = 5) prior use of the rules and in 5 control hospitals, which declined the educational intervention because they were already implementing the rules. RESULTS: Although participants gave highly positive appraisals of the Ottawa Ankle Rules and the educational sessions, there was no reduction in the use of ankle radiography for the 10 hospitals that received the educational sessions (73% before and 78% after the intervention, p = 0.11). In contrast, use of radiography decreased significantly, from 75% to 65%, in the 5 control hospitals (p = 0.022). INTERPRETATION: Even when a dissemination strategy is well received and involves a widely accepted clinical guideline, the impact on behaviour in clinical practice may be small. In addition to broad dissemination, an active local implementation strategy is necessary to encourage physicians to adopt clinical guidelines. (+info)
Prospective survey to verify the Ottawa ankle rules.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Ottawa ankle rules are valid in the setting of an urban teaching hospital in the UK. DESIGN: A prospective survey. SETTING: Accident and emergency department, Western Infirmary, Glasgow from 1 April 1995 to 31 August 1995. SUBJECTS: 800 patients with an acute ankle injury. RESULTS: 800 patients were used for analysis of which 584 (73%) were radiographed; 70 (12%) had fractures, 63 (10.8%) of which were significant. Four of these patients with fractures fulfilled none of the Ottawa ankle rules criteria for plain radiography. CONCLUSION: Application of the Ottawa ankle rules to this group of patients would have produced a sensitivity of 93.6%. Although useful, decision rules should be used with care and not replace clinical judgment and experience. (+info)
Validation of the Ottawa ankle rules in children.
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the Ottawa ankle rules can be used to accurately predict which children with ankle and midfoot injuries need radiography. METHODS: Prospective study with historical control group of all children aged 1-15 years presenting to Sheffield Children's Hospital accident and emergency department with blunt ankle and/or midfoot injuries during two five month periods before and after implementation of the Ottawa ankle rules. RESULTS: In the study group 432 out of 761 (56.76%) patients received radiography compared with 500 out of 782 (63.93%) in the control group. This was a statistically significant reduction in radiography rate of 7.2% (95% confidence interval 2.3% to 12.1%, p <0.01). The sensitivity of the Ottawa ankle rules was 98.3% and the specificity 46.9%. There was no increase in the number of missed fractures (one in each group). CONCLUSION: The Ottawa ankle rules can be applied in children to determine the need for radiography in ankle and midfoot injuries. Their implementation leads to a reduction in the radiography rate without leading to an increase in the number of missed fractures. (+info)
Landing in netball: effects of taping and bracing the ankle.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of bracing and taping on selected electromyographic, kinematic, and kinetic variables when landing from a jump. METHODS: Fifteen netball players performed a jump, so as to land on their dominant limb on a force plate. Electromyographic activity was recorded from the gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus muscles. Subjects were also filmed and measures of rearfoot motion were derived. RESULTS: Significantly less electromyographic activity (p<0.007) was observed from the gastrocnemius and peroneus longus muscle groups when subjects were braced. No other significant electromyographical findings were observed. Peak vertical ground reaction force and time to peak for vertical ground reaction force were not affected by bracing and taping, nor were the rearfoot and Achilles tendon angles at foot strike. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of bracing and taping on the selected biomechanics variables associated with landing was specifically limited to a reduction in muscle action, particularly for the braced condition. Netball players can be confident that the biomechanics of their landing patterns will not be altered whether they choose to wear a brace or tape their ankle joints. (+info)
Functional outcome of surgery for fractures of the ankle. A prospective, randomised comparison of management in a cast or a functional brace.
We randomised prospectively 60 consecutive patients who were undergoing internal fixation of similar fractures of the ankle into two groups, one of which was treated by immobilisation in a below-knee cast and the other by a functional brace with early movement. All were instructed to avoid weight-bearing on the affected side. They were seen at 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. The functional rating scale of Mazur et al was used to evaluate the patients at each follow-up and we recorded the time of return to work. After one year the patients completed the SF-36 questionnaire. By then 55 patients remained in the study, 28 (mean age 45.5 years) in group 1 and 27 (mean age 39.5 years) in group 2. Those in group 2 had higher functional scores at each follow-up but only at six weeks was this difference significant (p = 0.02). They also had higher mean SF-36 scores, but this difference was significant only for two of the eight aspects investigated. For patients gainfully employed, not on workers' compensation, the mean time from surgery to return to work was 53.3 days for group 2 and 106.5 days for group 1; this difference was significant (p = 0.01). No patient developed a problem with the wound or had loss of fixation. Our findings support the use of a functional brace and early movement after surgery for fractures of the ankle. (+info)
The surgical treatment for degenerative disease of the ankle.
Although a variety of surgical techniques are available for the surgical treatment of early degenerative disease of the ankle, arthrodesis remains the preferred treatment for severe cases. We studied 126 ankles with an average follow up of 39 months of whom 25 with early disease underwent debridement and cheilectomy, 18 with intermediate disease underwent lower tibial osteotomy and 83 with severe disease underwent either arthrodesis (78) or total ankle replacement (5). In 96% of cases there was a satisfactory functional outcome. (+info)
Analysis of muscle function in the lower limb after fracture of the diaphysis of the tibia in adults.
We examined the recovery of power in the muscles of the lower limb after fracture of the tibial diaphysis, using a Biodex dynamometer. Recovery in all muscle groups was rapid for 15 to 20 weeks following fracture after which it slowed. Two weeks after fracture the knee flexors and extensors have about 40% of normal power, which rises to 75% to 85% after one year. The dorsiflexors and plantar flexors of the ankle and the invertors and evertors of the subtalar joint are much weaker two weeks after injury, but at one year their mean power is more than that of the knee flexors and extensors. Our findings showed that age, the mode of injury, fracture morphology, the presence of an open wound and the Tscherne grade of closed fractures correlated with muscle power. It is age, however, which mainly determines muscle recovery after fracture of the tibial diaphysis. (+info)
Arthroscopic findings in acute fractures of the ankle.
We have evaluated prospectively the arthroscopic findings in acute fractures of the ankle in 288 consecutive patients (148 men and 140 women) with a mean age of 45.6 years. According to the AO-Danis-Weber classification there were 14 type-A fractures, 198 type B and 76 type C. Lesions of the cartilage were found in 228 ankles (79.2%), more often on the talus (69.4%) than on the distal tibia (45.8%), the fibula (45.1%), or the medial malleolus (41.3%). There were more lesions in men than in women and in general they were more severe in men (p < 0.05). They also tended to be worse in patients under 30 years and in those over 60 years of age. The frequency and severity of the lesions increased from type-B to type-C fractures (p < 0.05). Within each type of fracture the lesions increased from subgroups 1 to 3 (p < 0.05). The anterior tibiofibular ligament was injured with increased frequency from type-B.1 to type-C3 fractures (p < 0.05), but it was not torn in all cases. While lateral ligamentous injuries were seen more often in type-B than in type-C fractures (p < 0.05), no difference was noted in the frequency of deltoid ligamentous lesions. Our findings show that arthroscopy is useful in identifying associated intra-articular lesions in acute fractures of the ankle. (+info)