(1/252) T cell reconstitution of BB/W rats after the initiation of insulitis precipitates the onset of diabetes.

One of the diabetes susceptibility genes of the BB/W (Biobreeding/Worcester) rat maps to the lyp locus on chromosome 4. The BB/W lyp allele is responsible for a severe peripheral T lymphopenia. Correction of this lymphopenia by transfer of normal, histocompatible T cells prevents diabetes, providing T cell reconstitution is initiated before insulitis. We have analyzed this time-dependent regulation of the diabetogenic process by normal T cells. We demonstrate that T cell reconstitution after the initiation of insulitis precipitates the onset of diabetes through the recruitment of donor T cells to the autoimmune process. This inability of normal T cells to regulate primed diabetogenic BB/W T cells and their own autoreactive potential were observed when normal T cells outnumbered pathogenic T cells by approximately 1000-fold. Analysis of donor-derived T cells recovered from BB/W rats that were reconstituted before insulitis, and hence protected from diabetes, demonstrates that early T cell reconstitution of BB/W rats does not result in a long term physical or functional depletion of islet cell-specific T cell precursors among donor cells or in the expansion of T cells that can regulate the activation and expansion of diabetogenic T cells.  (+info)

(2/252) Genetics of Cd36 and the clustering of multiple cardiovascular risk factors in spontaneous hypertension.

Disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism have been reported to cluster in patients with essential hypertension and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). A deletion in the Cd36 gene on chromosome 4 has recently been implicated in defective carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in isolated adipocytes from SHRs. However, the role of Cd36 and chromosome 4 in the control of blood pressure and systemic cardiovascular risk factors in SHRs is unknown. In the SHR. BN-Il6/Npy congenic strain, we have found that transfer of a segment of chromosome 4 (including Cd36) from the Brown Norway (BN) rat onto the SHR background induces reductions in blood pressure and ameliorates dietary-induced glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These results demonstrate that a single chromosome region can influence a broad spectrum of cardiovascular risk factors involved in the hypertension metabolic syndrome. However, analysis of Cd36 genotypes in the SHR and stroke-prone SHR strains indicates that the deletion variant of Cd36 was not critical to the initial selection for hypertension in the SHR model. Thus, the ability of chromosome 4 to influence multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, may depend on linkage of Cd36 to other genes trapped within the differential segment of the SHR. BN-Il6/Npy strain.  (+info)

(3/252) Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein induces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the "resistant" Brown Norway rat: disease susceptibility is determined by MHC and MHC-linked effects on the B cell response.

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by active immunization with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is an Ab-mediated, T cell-dependent autoimmune disease that replicates the inflammatory demyelinating pathology of multiple sclerosis. We report that disease susceptibility and severity are determined by MHC and MHC-linked effects on the MOG-specific B cell response that mediate severe clinical EAE in the EAE-resistant Brown Norway (BN) rat. Immunization with the extracellular domain of MOG in CFA induced fulminant clinical disease associated with widespread demyelination and with an inflammatory infiltrate containing large numbers of polymorphonuclear cells and eosinophils within 10 days of immunization. To analyze the effects of the MHC (RT1 system) we compared BN (RT1 n) rats with Lewis (LEW) (RT1 l) and two reciprocal MHC congenic strains, LEW.1N (RT1n) and BN.1L (RT1 l). This comparison revealed that disease severity and clinical course were strongly influenced by the MHC haplotype that modulated the pathogenic MOG-specific autoantibody response. The intra-MHC recombinant congenic strain LEW.1R38 demonstrated that gene loci located both within the centromeric segment of the MHC containing classical class I and class II genes and within the telomeric RT1.M region containing the MOG gene are involved in determining Ab production and disease susceptibility. This study indicates that the current T cell-centered interpretation of MHC-mediated effects on disease susceptibility must be reassessed in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases in which autoantibody is involved in disease pathogenesis.  (+info)

(4/252) Pathological and immunological findings of athymic nude and congenic wild type BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Neospora caninum.

Neospora is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that causes abortions and neuromuscular disorders in a wide variety of mammals. Japanese bovine isolate JPA1 was inoculated intraperitoneally into BALB/c nu/ nu (athymic nude) and BALB/c (congenic wild type) female mice to examine the distribution of parasites and resistance mechanisms to Neospora infection. All the athymic nude mice died within 28 days after intraperitoneal injection of 2 x 10(5) JPA1 tachyzoites, whereas all the congenic wild type mice survived without exhibiting any clinical signs. Tachyzoites were identified in the uterus and pancreas and later spread to many other organs. Most tachyzoites identified in the necrotic foci were localized in the epithelium of the venules and capillaries. Nude mice developed high level of serum interferon-gamma and interleukin-6 as infection proceeded. Inflammatory response to Neospora infection might be mediated by Th1-type dependent cellular immunity.  (+info)

(5/252) C6 produced by macrophages contributes to cardiac allograft rejection.

The terminal components of complement C5b-C9 can cause significant injury to cardiac allografts. Using C6-deficient rats, we have found that the rejection of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I-incompatible PVG.R8 (RT1.A(a)B(u)) cardiac allografts by PVG.1U (RT1.A(u)B(u)) recipients is particularly dependent on C6. This model was selected to determine whether tissue injury results from C6 produced by macrophages, which are a conspicuous component of infiltrates in rejecting transplants. We demonstrated that high levels of C6 mRNA are expressed in isolated populations of macrophages. The relevance of macrophage-produced C6 to cardiac allograft injury was investigated by transplanting hearts from PVG. R8 (C6-) donors to PVG.1U (C6-) rats which had been reconstituted with bone marrow from PVG.1U (C6+) rats as the sole source of C6. Hearts grafted to hosts after C6 reconstitution by bone marrow transplantation underwent rejection characterized by deposition of IgG and complement on the vascular endothelium together with extensive intravascular aggregates of P-selectin-positive platelets. At the time of acute rejection, the cardiac allografts contained extensive perivascular and interstitial macrophage infiltrates. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization demonstrated high levels of C6 mRNA in the macrophage-laden transplants. C6 protein levels were also increased in the circulation during rejection. To determine the relative contribution to cardiac allograft rejection of the low levels of circulating C6 produced systemically by macrophages, C6 containing serum was passively transferred to PVG.1U (C6-) recipients of PVG.R8 (C6-) hearts. This reconstituted the C6 levels to about 3 to 6% of normal values, but failed to induce allograft rejection. In control PVG.1U (C6-) recipients that were reconstituted with bone marrow from PVG.1U (C6-) donors, C6 levels remained undetectable and PVG.R8 cardiac allografts were not rejected. These results indicate that C6 produced by macrophages can cause significant tissue damage.  (+info)

(6/252) Congenic substitution mapping excludes Sa as a candidate gene locus for a blood pressure quantitative trait locus on rat chromosome 1.

Previously, linkage analysis in several experimental crosses between hypertensive rat strains and their contrasting reference strains have identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for blood pressure on rat chromosome 1 (Chr 1) spanning the Sa gene locus. In this study, we report the further dissection of this Chr 1 blood pressure QTL with congenic substitution mapping. To address whether the Sa gene represents a candidate gene for the Chr 1 blood pressure QTL, congenic strains were developed by introgressing high blood pressure QTL alleles from the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) into the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY-1) reference strain. Congenic animals carrying a chromosomal segment from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats between genetic markers Mt1pa and D1Rat200 (including the Sa gene locus) show a significant increase in basal systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto progenitors (P<0.001, respectively), whereas congenic animals carrying a subfragment of this Chr 1 region defined by markers Mt1pa and D1Rat57 (also spanning the Sa gene) do not show elevated basal blood pressure levels (P=0.83 and P=0.9, respectively). Similar results were obtained for NaCl-induced blood pressure values. Thus, the blood pressure QTL on Chr 1 is located centromeric to the Sa gene locus in a region that is syntenic to human chromosome 11p15.4-p15.3. This region excludes the Sa as a blood pressure-elevating candidate gene locus on the basis of congenic substitution mapping approaches.  (+info)

(7/252) Naturally anergic and suppressive CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells as a functionally and phenotypically distinct immunoregulatory T cell subpopulation.

A CD4(+) T cell subpopulation defined by the expression levels of a particular cell surface molecule (e.g. CD5, CD45RB, CD25, CD62L or CD38) bears an autoimmune-preventive activity in various animal models. Here we show that the expression of CD25 is highly specific, when compared with other molecules, in delineating the autoimmune-preventive immunoregulatory CD4(+) T cell population. Furthermore, although CD25 is an activation marker for T cells, the following findings indicate that immunoregulatory CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells are functionally distinct from activated or anergy-induced T cells derived from CD25(-)CD4(+) T cells. First, the former are autoimmune-preventive in vivo, naturally unresponsive (anergic) to TCR stimulation in vitro and, upon TCR stimulation, able to suppress the activation/proliferation of other T cells, whereas the latter scarcely exhibit the in vivo autoimmune-preventive activity or the in vitro suppressive activity. Second, such activated or anergy-induced CD25(-) spleen cells produce various autoimmune diseases when transferred to syngeneic athymic nude mice, whereas similarly treated normal spleen cells, which include CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells, do not. Third, upon polyclonal T cell stimulation, CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells express CD25 at higher levels and more persistently than CD25(-)CD4(+) T cell-derived activated T cells; moreover, when the stimulation is ceased, the former revert to the original levels of CD25 expression, whereas the latter lose the expression. These results collectively indicate that naturally anergic and suppressive CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells present in normal naive mice are functionally and phenotypically stable, distinct from other T cells, and play a key role in maintaining immunologic self-tolerance.  (+info)

(8/252) Insulin-degrading enzyme identified as a candidate diabetes susceptibility gene in GK rats.

Genetic analysis of the diabetic GK rat has revealed several diabetes susceptibility loci. Congenic strains have been established for the major diabetes locus, Niddm1, by transfer of GK alleles onto the genome of the normoglycemic F344 rat. Niddm1 was dissected into two subloci, physically separated in the congenic strains Niddm1b and Niddm1i, each with at least one disease susceptibility gene. Here we have mapped Niddm1b to 1 cM by genetic and pathophysiological characterization of new congenic substrains for the locus. The gene encoding insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE:) was located to this 1 cM region, and the two amino acid substitutions (H18R and A890V) identified in the GK allele reduced insulin-degrading activity by 31% in transfected cells. However, when the H18R and A890V variants were studied separately, no effects were observed, demonstrating a synergistic effect of the two variants on insulin degradation. No effect on insulin degradation was observed in cell lysates, indicating that the effect is coupled to receptor-mediated internalization of insulin. Congenic rats with the IDE: GK allele displayed post-prandial hyperglycemia, reduced lipogenesis in fat cells, blunted insulin-stimulated glucose transmembrane uptake and reduced insulin degradation in isolated muscle. Analysis of additional rat strains demonstrated that the dysfunctional IDE: allele was unique to GK. These data point to an important role for IDE: in the diabetic phenotype in GK.  (+info)