Effect of pen size on behavioral, endocrine, and immune responses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.
Female water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves (n = 28) aged 7 to 10 d were divided into four groups of seven animals each to examine the effects of space allowance (Group A: 2.6 indoor m2 + 2.0 outdoor m2/calf; Group B: 2.6 indoor m2/calf; Group C: 1.5 indoor m2/calf; Group D: 1.0 indoor m2/calf) on behavioral, endocrine, and immune variables for a period of 60 d. Animals were offered 7 L/d of a commercial acidified milk substitute. The calves averaged 45.9 kg initially and 92.4 kg finally. The behavior observations were conducted 7 d after grouping and fortnightly thereafter. At wk 4 and 8, the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test was performed to induce aspecific delayed hypersensitivity. At wk. 1 and 3, calves were injected i.m. with keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Antibody titers were determined at weekly intervals for 7 wk. Calves in pens with greater space allowance (Groups A and B) were less active than Groups C and D (P<.001). The latter groups were also observed feeding more often at wk 7 (P<.01). Calves provided with an outdoor paddock spent less time standing than Groups C and D (P<.01), and lay with a greater number of outstretched legs (P<.001). Groups C and D showed a lower reaction to PHA in both skin tests than did Groups A and B (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). Group A showed an antibody response consistently higher than groups B, C, and D (P<.01, P<.05, and P<.05, respectively). At the end of the experimental period, the calves were subjected to an isolation test lasting 10 min. Group D showed a longer duration of movement with respect to Groups A and B (P<.01); animals from Group C walked more than did Group A (P<.05). Cortisol concentration evaluated 0, 10, 45, 90, 150, and 225 min after separation from the group was higher in Groups C and D than in Groups A and B (P<.01). For all animals, the highest cortisol level was observed immediately after the isolation test (P<.001). Space restriction resulted in evidence of stress in the animals as shown by alterations in a number of physiological responses. However, the use of small groups of only seven animals per pen may have affected their reactions to space restriction. It is possible that using larger groups could change these conclusions. (+info)
Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids.
Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen. (+info)
Headroom requirements for horses in transit.
Horses intended for slaughter in Western Canada are frequently transported in double-deck trailers, where headroom may be restricted. Poll and withers height was estimated from type photographs of various horse breeds. The headroom required by Canadian legislation and codes of practice may not be sufficiently restrictive to protect the welfare of sport type horses when transported. (+info)
Comparison of minimum space allowance standards for transportation of cattle by road from 8 authorities.
Space allowance for animals in transit is a consistent concern in many countries developing codes of practice and regulations to assure humane treatment of food producing animals. Describing minimum space allowance requirements for cattle in transit has proven to be difficult, as the space required increases as the animal grows. Loading pressure, defined as weight of live animal per unit area, has proven to be a clear method of communicating with transporters and inspection staff what the maximum safe stocking limit is based on individual animal weight. The loading density recommendations in the Canadian code of practice for beef cattle are compared with other standards by using loading pressure charts as a visual aid. Loading pressure charts are recommended in preference to a tabular format to describe the minimal space allowed per animal for cattle transported by road. (+info)
Principles in laboratory animal research for experimental purposes.
The present work contains information about proper husbandry and care of laboratory animals, microbiological monitoring of their health and protecting them against suffering and distress. The author also gives some advice on the improvement and unification of experimental research results through the standardisation of laboratory animals used for the experiments as well as imposing proper conditions for animal husbandry. (+info)
The "new perception" of animal agriculture: legless cows, featherless chickens, and a need for genuine analysis.
A growing popular literature has created a "New Perception" of animal agriculture by depicting commercial animal production as 1) detrimental to animal welfare, 2) controlled by corporate interests, 3) motivated by profit rather than by traditional animal care values, 4) causing increased world hunger, 5) producing unhealthy food, and 6) harming the environment. Agricultural organizations have often responded with public relations material promoting a very positive image of animal agriculture and denying all six of the critics' claims. The public, faced with these two highly simplistic and contradictory images, needs knowledgeable research and analysis to serve as a basis for public policy and individual choice. Scientists and ethicists could provide such analysis. In some cases, however, scientists and ethicists have themselves produced misleading, polarized, or simplistic accounts of animal agriculture. The problems in such accounts include the repetition of unreliable information from advocacy sources, use of unwarranted generalizations, simplistic analysis of complex issues, and glossing over the ethical problems. The New Perception debate raises important and complex ethical issues; in order to provide useful guidance, both scientists and ethicists must consider these issues as research problems that are worthy of genuine investigation and analysis. (+info)
Perspectives on hepatitis B studies with chimpanzees.
Chimpanzees have been shown to be exquisitely susceptible to human hepatitis viruses, without themselves developing clinical illness, thus providing an important model for studies on these agents. Chimpanzees have contributed substantially to human welfare by making possible the development of hepatitis B vaccines, which now prevent development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in millions of people. They have provided a means to evaluate the efficacy of virus inactivation strategies, which have made blood derivatives formerly contaminated with blood-borne viruses (hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency viruses) safe with respect to their transmission. In exchange for these contributions, humans owe chimpanzees lifelong retirement in sanctuaries that offer socialization and environmental enrichment. (+info)
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in animal research.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging can be used to investigate, noninvasively, a wide range of biological processes in systems as diverse as protein solutions, single cells, isolated perfused organs, and tissues in vivo. It is also possible to combine different NMR techniques enabling metabolic, anatomical, and physiological information to be obtained in the same experiment. This review provides a simple overview of the basic principles of NMR and outlines both the advantages and disadvantages of NMR spectroscopy and imaging. A few examples of potential applications of NMR spectroscopy and imaging are presented, which demonstrate the range of questions that can be asked using these techniques. The potential impact of using NMR techniques in a biomedical research program on the total number of animals required for specific investigations, as well as the number of animals used in research, are discussed. The article concludes with a personal perspective on the impact of continuing improvements in NMR technology for future applications in animal research. (+info)