Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea.
Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar. (+info)
Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. I. Natural occurrence and diagnosis.
Clinical sickness was observed in domestic ducks, geese, horses and swine during October 1973. All species showed upper alimentary distress with mortalities occurring in the geese. Barley derived from a common source had been fed. Examination of the barley revealed invasion by Fusarium spp and detection of a high level of dermatitic fusariotoxins. (+info)
Mercury and mink. I. The use of mercury contaminated fish as a food for ranch mink.
Adult female and juvenile ranch mink were fed rations containing 50 and 75% of fish containing 0.44 ppm total mercury over a 145 day period. There was no clinical or pathological evidence of intoxication in these animals and mercury concentrations in tissue appeared to be at a level below that associated with toxicity. (+info)
Mycotoxin determinations on animal feedstuffs and tissues in Western Canada.
Results of examination of specimens of plant or animal origin for various mycotoxins are presented. Analyses for aflatoxins and ochratoxins were most frequently requested, usually on the basis of visible mouldiness. Aflatoxin B1 was found in one of 100 specimens at a level of 50 ppb in a sample of alfalfa brome hay. Ochratoxin A was detected in seven of 95 specimens comprising six samples of wheat at levels between 30 and 6000 ppb and one sample of hay at a level of 30 ppb. An overall detection rate of 4.2% involving significant levels of potent mycotoxins suggests that acute or chronic mycotoxicoses may occur in farm livestock or poultry more frequently than presently diagnosied. (+info)
Pathological changes in chickens, ducks and turkeys fed high levels of rapeseed oil.
Rations containing 25% of either regular rapeseed oil (36% erucic acid), Oro rapeseed oil (1.9% erucic acid), soybean oil or a mixture of lard and corn oil were fed to chickens, ducks and turkeys. The regular rapeseed oil ration caused growth depression, increased feed conversion and anemia in all species. All the ducks and some of the chickens fed the regular rapeseed oil ration died. These dead birds were affected with hydropericardium and ascites. No deaths in the turkeys could be attributed to the regular rapeseed oil ration but some turkeys fed this ration had degenerative foci characterized by infiltrations of histiocytic and giant cells in the myocardium. Severe fatty change in the heart, skeletal muscles, spleen and kidney was found at an early age in all birds fed the regular rapeseed oil ration. Less severe fatty change but no other lesions were found in birds fed the Oro rapeseed oil and soybean oil rations. (+info)
Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.
Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (P<.10), had lighter starting and finished weights on feed (P< .01), lighter carcass weights (P<.01), and smaller longissimus muscle areas (P<.05) than calves from BG. Calves from E+ were similar to calves from BG in feedlot ADG, percentage kidney, heart, and pelvic fat, fat thickness over 12th rib, yield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows. (+info)
Antioxidative and oxidative status in muscles of pigs fed rapeseed oil, vitamin E, and copper.
The susceptibility of a given muscle tissue to lipid oxidation may not only depend on the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and the balance between antioxidants and prooxidants, but also on the composition of the skeletal muscle. In the present study, the effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) and copper in combination with a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids were examined with regard to the antioxidant concentration and the susceptibility to lipid oxidation of two muscles, longissimus (LD) and psoas major (PM), representing different oxidative capacity. In addition, fatty acid profiles of the backfat and the intramuscular lipids, as well as fresh meat quality traits, were studied. Pigs were allotted to a 3x3 factorial experiment with three levels of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (0, 100, and 200 mg/kg of feed) and three levels of copper (0, 35, and 175 mg/kg of feed) added to a diet containing 6% rapeseed oil. A basal diet (without rapeseed oil) was added to the experimental design, giving a total of 10 dietary treatments. Muscle alpha-tocopherol concentrations increased (P<.001) with increasing dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate in the feed. The antioxidative status was higher in PM than in LD, when considering the concentration of alpha-tocopherol (P<.001) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, P<.001; glutathione peroxidase, P = .06). Supplemental copper did not give rise to any deposition of copper in muscle tissue or backfat, but the antioxidant status of PM increased. The susceptibility to lipid oxidation was reduced in LD with increasing dietary dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and in PM with increasing dietary copper. Supplemental dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate improved the water-holding capacity of LD (P = .005) and PM (P = .003). The fatty acid composition of the backfat and the triglyceride fraction of the intramuscular fat became more unsaturated with the addition of rapeseed oil to the feed. Higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids due to the rapeseed oil were also reflected in the phospholipid fraction of the intramuscular fat, but no influence on the proportion of saturated fatty acids was seen. The susceptibility to lipid oxidation of PM was lower for pigs on the rapeseed oil-based diet than for those on the basal diet. The energy metabolic status of the muscles and the accumulation of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum were not influenced by the dietary treatments, but there were differences between muscle types. The addition of rapeseed oil to the diet reduced the muscular content of glycogen (LD, P = .02; PM, P = .06) and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (P = .05). Overall, dietary fat, dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate, and copper affected the oxidative status of pig muscles, and the results differed depending on muscle type. (+info)
Manipulation of the type of fat consumed by growing pigs affects plasma and mononuclear cell fatty acid compositions and lymphocyte and phagocyte functions.
To investigate the immunological effect of feeding pigs different dietary lipids, 3-wk-old, weaned pigs were fed for 40 d on one of five diets, which differed only in the type of oil present (the oil contributed 5% by weight of the diet and the total fat content of the diets was 8% by weight). The oils used were soybean (control diet), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), sunflower oil (SO), canola oil (CO), and fish oil (FO; rich in long-chain [n-3] polyunsaturared fatty acids). There were no significant differences in initial or final animal weights, weight gains, or health scores among the groups. There were no significant differences in the concentration of anti-Escherichia coli vaccine antibodies in the gut lumens of pigs fed the different diets. The fatty acid composition of the diet markedly affected the fatty acid composition of the plasma and of mononuclear cells (a mixture of lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages) prepared from the blood, lymph nodes, or thymus. The FO feeding resulted in a significant increase in the number of circulating granulocytes. The FO feeding significantly decreased the proportion of phagocytes engaged in uptake of E. coli and decreased the activity of those phagocytes that were active. The proliferation of lymphocytes in cultures of whole blood from pigs fed the HOSO, SO, or FO diets was less than in those from pigs fed the CO diet. Proliferation of lymph node lymphocytes from SO- or FO-fed pigs was less than that from control, CO-, or HOSO-fed pigs. The natural killer cell activity of blood lymphocytes from pigs fed the FO diet was significantly reduced compared with those from pigs fed the CO diet. The concentration of PGE2 in the medium of cultured blood, lymph node, or thymic mononuclear cells was lower if the cells came from pigs fed the FO diet. Thus, the type of oil included in the diet of growing pigs affects the numbers and functional activities of immune cells in different body compartments. (+info)