Epidemiological field studies of animal populations.
Numerous survey designs have been developed for epidemiological field studies of human populations, most of which are also applicable to field studies of animal poulations. Each design has its own advantages and disadvantages. The final design selected for a particular study depends upon such factors as the overall purpose of the study, the geographic dimensions of the study area, the diseases incidence or prevalence and species to be studied as well as the planned use for the data. Population dynamics including the distribution and density of the species to be studied are factors that should also be considered in the initial design of a study. A surveillance system, using mailed questionnaire data and a subsequent survey using direct interviews of validate the data in a statewide study of swine birth defects are used to illustrate some of the techniques that can be applied to domestic animal populations in a fairly large geographic area. The type of data collected, its use and its limitations are also considered. (+info
Studies on time-kill kinetics of different classes of antibiotics against veterinary pathogenic bacteria including Pasteurella, Actinobacillus and Escherichia coli.
A systematic analysis of the bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect of several antibiotics used in veterinary medicine was carried out by time-kill kinetic analysis using P. haemolytica, P. multocida, A. pleuropneumoniae, and E. coli. The antibiotics tested were enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, penicillin G, ceftiofur and tetracycline. Unexpectedly, the antibiotics well characterized as bacteriostatic agents against human pathogens such as tetracycline and macrolides, showed bactericidal activity against P. haemolytica and A. pleuropneumoniae. In contrast, tetracycline and erythromycin were bacteriostatic and tilmicosin was bactericidal against P. multocida. In addition, P. multocida was killed by fluoroquinolones at a slower rate than the other bacteria. Spectrum analysis revealed that ceftiofur and tilmicosin were good substrates of the universal efflux pump, AcrA/B, but penicillin and tetracycline were not. The fluoroquinolones were modest substrates for AcrA/B. (+info
An antiserum raised against the recombinant cytoplasmic tail of the human CD43 glycoprotein identifies CD43 in many mammalian species.
Leukosialin or CD43 is a heavily O-glycosylated transmembrane protein expressed on all cells of the haematopoietic cell lineage with the exception of red blood cells and mature B cells. This antigen has been identified in human, mouse and rat with monoclonal antibodies. Although orthologues of many human and rodent leucocyte cell surface antigens have been described in recent years, CD43, despite its abundance on human and rodent cells, remained uncharacterized in other vertebrate species. The comparison of CD43 amino acid sequences from human, mouse and rat indicated a high level of homology in the cytoplasmic domain. A serum, (p.aCD43cp) raised against the recombinant cytoplasmic tail of the human CD43, was shown not only to recognize human CD43, but it bound to putative CD43 orthologues in many mammalian species. CD43 was found to be expressed in the same leucocyte subpopulations and circumstantial evidence suggested that CD43 is also regulated similarly during leucocyte ontogeny in all species investigated. As CD43+ cells were readily observed in fixed tissues, the p.aCD43cp serum may be used as a reliable reagent for the verification of the haematopoietic origin of infiltrations and, used together with other reagents, for the serological characterization of normal and pathological lymphoid tissues and lymphoid infiltrations in experimental work and in animal disease. (+info
Proteoglycan turnover during development of spontaneous osteoarthrosis in guinea pigs.
OBJECTIVE: The study was performed to clarify the metabolic background of the variations in proteoglycan concentrations, relating to ageing and the spontaneous development of osteoarthrosis in guinea pigs. METHODS: Six-, 9- and 12-month-old Hartley guinea pigs were injected intraperitoneally with Na2(35)SO4. The incorporation and degradation of various proteoglycans were analyzed in different areas of tibial articular cartilage during the development of osteoarthrosis. RESULTS: Proteoglycan synthesis was most active in the uncalcified cartilage of 6-month animals and highest in the medial compartment with its presumably higher load. The breakdown of proteoglycans decreased with age. The onset of osteoarthrosis was associated with decreased synthesis of large and small proteoglycans, while the rate of degradation remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: During onset of osteoarthrosis the synthesis of large proteoglycans gradually becomes insufficient to compensate for the simultaneous degradation. This differs from findings in more rapidly progressing, experimental secondary osteoarthrosis, where a substantial increase in the rate of degradation is more conspicuous. (+info
Development of an ELISA for detection of myxoma virus-specific rabbit antibodies: test evaluation for diagnostic applications on vaccinated and wild rabbit sera.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and compared with 2 reference diagnostic tests (indirect immunofluorescence [IF] and complement fixation) to detect myxoma virus-specific antibodies in sera from 50 rabbits experimentally vaccinated with an attenuated strain of myxoma virus or with a Shope fibroma virus. The ELISA was highly specific (100% specificity) and sensitive (100%, 21 days after homologous vaccination). In a comparison of the ELISA with the IF test in 128 wild rabbits from France, discrepant results were obtained in only 11 (8.6%) animals, which were positive with the ELISA and negative with the IF test. The higher sensitivity and the good specificity of the ELISA was confirmed in a serologic survey of 118 rabbits from 2 Kerguelen (Indian Ocean) islands, where the prevalence of myxomatosis varied considerably. The ELISA is an alternative serologic test for diagnosis, vaccine evaluation, and seroepidemiologic surveys of myxomatosis. (+info
Public health response to a potentially rabid bear cub--Iowa, 1999.
On August 27, 1999, a 5-6 month-old black bear cub in a petting zoo in Clermont, Iowa, died after developing acute central nervous system signs; the initial direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) test results available on August 28 indicated the bear had rabies. On August 29, in response to the positive laboratory report, the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH) initiated a campaign to identify and inform persons potentially exposed to the bear's saliva. Within 72 hours, IDPH staff verified contact and exposure information for approximately 350 persons. Subsequent testing found no evidence of rabies virus in brain or spinal cord tissues. This report describes the public health response to this potential rabies outbreak and reviews testing procedures and protocols for rabies. (+info
Baroreflex sensitivity predicts the induction of ventricular arrhythmias by cesium chloride in rabbits.
Previous studies have shown that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the genesis of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with long QT syndrome, and in cesium chloride (Cs)-induced VT in animals. The present study investigated whether baroreflex sensitivity predicts the induction of VT by Cs in the rabbit in vivo. Monophasic action potentials (MAPs) of the left ventricular endocardium were recorded simultaneously with the surface ECG in 27 rabbits. Rabbits were divided into 4 groups based on the Cs-induced ventricular arrhythmias: (1) no ventricular premature contractions (No-VPC group), (2) single or paired VPC (VPC group), (3) monomorphic VT (MVT group), and (4) polymorphic VT (PVT group). Baroreflex sensitivity was significantly lower in the MVT and PVT groups than in the No-VPC and VPC groups. The plasma norepinephrine concentration before Cs injection was significantly higher in the MVT group than in the other 3 groups, and the norepinephrine concentration after Cs injection was significantly higher in the MVT and PVT groups than in the No-VPC and VPC groups. Baroreflex sensitivity was negatively correlated with the norepinephrine concentration before Cs injection. These results suggest that autonomic nervous system dysfunction, as defined by reduced baroreflex sensitivity, and elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations predict increased susceptibility to Cs-induced VT. (+info
In vitro microbiological characterization of novel cyclic homopentapeptides, CP-101,680 and CP-163,234, for animal health use.
Two cyclic homopentapeptides, CP-101,680 and CP-163,234 [6a-(3',4'-dichlorophenylamino) analogs of viomycin and capreomycin, respectively], were identified as novel antibacterial agents for the treatment of animal disease, especially for livestock respiratory disease. The in vitro microbiological characterization of both CP-101,680 and CP-163,234 was carried out using their parent compounds, viomycin and capreomycin, as controls. This characterization included antibacterial spectrum, influence of media, inoculum size, pH, EDTA, polymixin B nonapeptide (PMBN), serum, cell-free protein synthesis inhibition, and time-kill kinetics. Our results indicated that the capreomycin analog, CP-163,234, showed slightly improved in vitro potency over the viomycin analog, CP-101,680. Both analogs showed very potent cell-free protein synthesis inhibition activity and were bactericidal against Pasteurella haemolytica, P. multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae at the level of 4 times and 8 times MICs. CP-163,234 was bactericidal at the level of 4x and 8x MIC against E. coli, but re-growth was observed after 24 hours incubation at both concentrations of CP-101,680. (+info