Geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic variations in the investigation and management of coronary heart disease in Scotland.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether age, sex, level of deprivation, and area of residence affect the likelihood of investigation and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Routine discharge data were used to identify patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between 1991 and 1993 inclusive. Record linkage provided the proportion undergoing angiography, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over the following two years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether age, sex, deprivation, and area of residence were independently associated with progression to investigation and revascularisation. SETTING: Mainland Scotland 1991 to 1995 inclusive. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two year incidence of angiography, PTCA, and CABG. Results-36 838 patients were admitted with AMI. 4831 (13%) underwent angiography, 587 (2%) PTCA, and 1825 (5%) CABG. Women were significantly less likely to undergo angiography (p < 0.001) and CABG (p < 0.001) but more likely to undergo PTCA (p < 0.05). Older patients were less likely to undergo all three procedures (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic deprivation was associated with a reduced likelihood of both angiography and CABG (p < 0.001). There were significant geographic variations in all three modalities (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Variations in investigation and management were demonstrated by age, sex, geography, and socioeconomic deprivation. These are unlikely to be accounted for by differences in need; differences in clinical practice are, therefore, likely. (+info)
Usefulness of fractional flow reserve to predict clinical outcome after balloon angioplasty.
BACKGROUND: After regular coronary balloon angioplasty, it would be helpful to identify those patients who have a low cardiac event rate. Coronary angiography alone is not sensitive enough for that purpose, but it has been suggested that the combination of optimal angiographic and optimal functional results indicates a low restenosis chance. Pressure-derived myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an index of the functional severity of the residual epicardial lesion and could be useful for that purpose. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 60 consecutive patients with single-vessel disease, balloon angioplasty was performed by use of a pressure instead of a regular guide wire. Both quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and measurement of FFR were performed 15 minutes after the procedure. A successful angioplasty result, defined as a residual diameter stenosis (DS) <50%, was achieved in 58 patients. In these patients, DS and FFR, measured 15 minutes after PTCA, were analyzed in relation to clinical outcome. In those 26 patients with both optimal angiographic (residual DS by QCA /=0.90) results, event-free survival rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were 92+/-5%, 92+/-5%, and 88+/-6%, respectively, versus 72+/-8%, 69+/-8%, and 59+/-9%, respectively, in the remaining 32 patients in whom the angiographic or functional result or both were suboptimal (P=0.047, P=0.028, and P=0.014, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a residual DS /=0.90, clinical outcome up to 2 years is excellent. Therefore, there is a complementary value of coronary angiography and coronary pressure measurement in the evaluation of PTCA result. (+info)
Coronary angioplasty induces rise in Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific antibodies.
Chlamydia pneumoniae is frequently found in atherosclerotic lesions, and high titers of specific antibodies are associated with increased risk for acute myocardial infarction. However, a causative relation has not been established yet. We performed a prospective study of 93 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) to investigate whether angioplasty influences Chlamydia-specific antibody titers and whether there is an association with restenosis. Blood samples were obtained before and 1 and 6 months after angioplasty. Antibodies against chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and against purified C. pneumoniae elementary bodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After angioplasty, the prevalence of antibodies to lipopolysaccharide rose from 20 to 26% for immunoglobulin A (IgA), from 53 to 64% for IgG, and from 2 to 7% for IgM (P = 0.021, 0.004, and 0.046, respectively). There was a rapid increase of mean antibody titers of all antibody classes within 1 month of PTCA. During the following 5 months, antibody titers decreased slightly but were still higher than baseline values. Results of the C. pneumoniae-specific ELISA were essentially the same. The rise of anti-Chlamydia antibodies was not caused by unspecific reactivation of the immune system, as levels of antibodies against cytomegalovirus did not change. Neither seropositivity nor antibody titers were related to restenosis. However, increases in mean IgA and IgM titers were restricted to patients who had suffered from myocardial infarction earlier in their lives. In conclusion, we show that PTCA induces a stimulation of the humoral immune response against C. pneumoniae. These data support the idea that plaque disruption during angioplasty might make hidden chlamydial antigens accessible to the immune system. (+info)
A randomized placebo-controlled trial of fluvastatin for prevention of restenosis after successful coronary balloon angioplasty; final results of the fluvastatin angiographic restenosis (FLARE) trial.
BACKGROUND: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors competitively inhibit biosynthesis of mevalonate, a precursor of non-sterol compounds involved in cell proliferation. Experimental evidence suggests that fluvastatin may, independent of any lipid lowering action, exert a greater direct inhibitory effect on proliferating vascular myocytes than other statins. The FLARE (Fluvastatin Angioplasty Restenosis) Trial was conceived to evaluate the ability of fluvastatin 40 mg twice daily to reduce restenosis after successful coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA). METHODS: Patients were randomized to either placebo or fluvastatin 40 mg twice daily beginning 2-4 weeks prior to planned PTCA and continuing after a successful PTCA (without the use of a stent), to follow-up angiography at 26+/-2 weeks. Clinical follow-up was completed at 40 weeks. The primary end-point was angiographic restenosis, measured by quantitative coronary angiography at a core laboratory, as the loss in minimal luminal diameter during follow-up. Clinical end-points were death, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft surgery or re-intervention, up to 40 weeks after PTCA. RESULTS: Of 1054 patients randomized, 526 were allocated to fluvastatin and 528 to placebo. Among these, 409 in the fluvastatin group and 427 in the placebo group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis, having undergone a successful PTCA after a minimum of 2 weeks of pre-treatment. At the time of PTCA, fluvastatin had reduced LDL cholesterol by 37% and this was maintained at 33% at 26 weeks. There was no difference in the primary end-point between the treatment groups (fluvastatin 0.23+/-0.49 mm vs placebo 0.23+/-0.52 mm, P=0.95) or in the angiographic restenosis rate (fluvastatin 28%, placebo 31%, chi-square P=0.42), or in the incidence of the composite clinical end-point at 40 weeks (22.4% vs 23.3%; logrank P=0.74). However, a significantly lower incidence of total death and myocardial infarction was observed in six patients (1.4%) in the fluvastatin group and 17 (4.0%) in the placebo group (log rank P=0.025). CONCLUSION: Treatment with fluvastatin 80 mg daily did not affect the process of restenosis and is therefore not indicated for this purpose. However, the observed reduction in mortality and myocardial infarction 40 weeks after PTCA in the fluvastatin treated group has not been previously reported with statin therapy. Accordingly, a priori investigation of this finding is indicated and a new clinical trial with this intention is already underway. (+info)
Prior cytomegalovirus infection and the risk of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary balloon angioplasty.
BACKGROUND: Restenosis is a common problem after all revascularization procedures in atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Reactivated human cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been detected in tissues of restenotic vascular lesions and was hypothesized to be a contributing pathogenic factor. Recent data suggest an association of restenosis after optimal coronary atherectomy with CMV serostatus, and a possible role of antiviral therapy was discussed. We therefore tested the hypothesis that prior CMV infection might be a risk factor for restenosis after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 92 consecutive patients who had been admitted for control angiography after previous PTCA within a mean interval of 6 months. Anti-CMV antibodies were measured as an indicator of prior CMV infection and latency. The coronary angiograms before PTCA, directly after, and 6 months later were analyzed quantitatively. Sixty-five percent of the patients were CMV-positive. Before PTCA, the degree (mean+/-SD) of stenosis was 69+/-10% in CMV-positive and 68+/-8.3% in CMV-negative subjects. PTCA resulted in a residual stenosis of 39% in both groups. After 6 months, the late losses of luminal diameter in the CMV-positive and -negative groups were 11+/-13% and 12+/-15%, respectively (P=0.658). In an ANCOVA with 25 potential risk factors for restenosis, CMV serostatus was not significantly associated with restenosis development. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that prior CMV infection, in contrast to optimal atherectomy, is not associated with chronic restenosis after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty. The results do not support a possible benefit from antiviral therapy. (+info)
Validation of an automated technique for determining the mechanical characteristics of coronary arteries during balloon angioplasty: laboratory assessment with necropsy segments.
OBJECTIVES: To develop a technique for automatic inflation of a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) balloon, with continuous measurement of the balloon pressure and volume; to validate the technique for determining the mechanical characteristics of coronary arteries. METHODS: During necropsy examination of the hearts of nine patients, 17 coronary artery samples were obtained for histological examination. A PTCA balloon was inserted into each artery, and the balloon pressure and volume were measured continuously during four repeat automatic inflations of the balloon. RESULTS: Of the 17 arteries, eight showed elastic, six plastic, and three fracture pressure-volume deformation characteristics. For the plastic deformations, the first inflation required a higher pressure than subsequent repeat inflations of 82 (61) kPa (mean (SD), range 25 to 175 kPa). For the three in the fracture group, the pressure drop because of the fracture occurred between 210 and 540 kPa. Two of these three showed a tear on visual inspection, and the other showed disruption of the intimal plaque on blinded histological examination. Of the six with plastic deformation characteristics alone, one showed a tear, and on histological examination two others showed splitting of the internal and external elastic lamina and one showed separation of intima and media. None in the elastic group showed any of these characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Plastic and fracture deformation characteristics could be differentiated from elastic characteristics. Visual or histological evidence of fracturing was present in all three arteries identified during angioplasty as having pressure-volume fracture characteristics. (+info)
Primary angioplasty versus systemic thrombolysis in anterior myocardial infarction.
OBJECTIVES: This study compares the efficacy of primary angioplasty and systemic thrombolysis with t-PA in reducing the in-hospital mortality of patients with anterior AMI. BACKGROUND: Controversy still exists about the relative benefit of primary angioplasty over thrombolysis as treatment for AMI. METHODS: Two-hundred and twenty patients with anterior AMI were randomly assigned in our institution to primary angioplasty (109 patients) or systemic thrombolysis with accelerated t-PA (111 patients) within the first five hours from the onset of symptoms. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Primary angioplasty was independently associated with a lower in-hospital mortality (2.8% vs. 10.8%, p = 0.02, adjusted odds ratio 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.85). During hospitalization, patients treated by angioplasty had a lower frequency of postinfarction angina or positive stress test (11.9% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.01) and less frequently underwent percutaneous or surgical revascularization after the initial treatment (22.0% vs. 47.7%, p < 0.001) than did patients treated by t-PA. At six month follow-up, patients treated by angioplasty had a lower cumulative rate of death (4.6% vs. 11.7%, p = 0.05) and revascularization (31.2% vs. 55.9%, p < 0.001) than those treated by t-PA. CONCLUSIONS: In centers with an experienced and readily available interventional team, primary angioplasty is superior to t-PA for the treatment of anterior AMI. (+info)
Long-term outcome after primary angioplasty: report from the primary angioplasty in myocardial infarction (PAMI-I) trial.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the two-year outcome after primary percutaneous coronary angioplasty or thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND: Primary angioplasty, that is, angioplasty without antecedent thrombolytic therapy, has been shown to be an effective reperfusion modality for patients suffering an acute myocardial infarction. This report reviews the two-year clinical outcome of patients randomized in the Primary Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction trial. METHODS: At 12 clinical centers, 395 patients who presented within 12 h of the onset of myocardial infarction were randomized to undergo primary angioplasty (195 patients) or to receive tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) (200 patients) followed by conservative care. Patients were followed by physician visits, phone call, letter and review of hospital records for any hospital admission at one month, six months, one year and two years. RESULTS: At two years, patients undergoing primary angioplasty had less recurrent ischemia (36.4% vs. 48% for t-PA, p = 0.026), lower reintervention rates (27.2% vs. 46.5% for t-PA, p < 0.0001) and reduced hospital readmission rates (58.5% vs. 69.0% for t-PA, p = 0.035). The combined end point of death or reinfarction was 14.9% for angioplasty versus 23% for t-PA, p = 0.034. Multivariate analysis found angioplasty to be independently predictive of a reduction in death, reinfarction or target vessel revascularization (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The initial benefit of primary angioplasty performed by experienced operators is maintained over a two-year follow-up period with improved infarct-free survival and reduced rate of reintervention. (+info)