Recombinant adenovirus expressing wild-type p53 is antiangiogenic: a proposed mechanism for bystander effect.
Angiogenesis is required for the growth and progression of malignancies. Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic alterations may accompany acquisition of the angiogenic phenotype. The tumor suppressor gene p53 is most frequently mutated in human cancers and is also known to be a transcriptional regulator of a variety of genes. Here, we investigated the antiangiogenic effect of the wild-type p53 (wt-p53) gene transfer on a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line. Mutant p53-expressing H226Br non-small cell lung cancer cells were transduced with the wt-p53 gene using a recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad5CMVp53) and applied to semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCRs for the detection of altered mRNA expression of angiogenic and/or antiangiogenic factors. In vivo neovascularization assay of Ad5CMVp53-infected cells was then performed using a membrane-diffusion chamber system s.c. transplanted in nu/nu mice. We also evaluated the effect of Ad5CMVp53-infected H226Br cells on nontransduced tumor cells in vivo by s.c. inoculating mixture of cells into nu/nu mice. Ad5CMVp53 infection markedly inhibited the expression of an angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and increased the expression of a novel antiangiogenic factor, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1, resulting in reduced neovascularization in vivo. Mixing experiments showed that tumor cells transduced with the wt-p53 gene inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of adjacent nontransduced cells. Our data suggest that a recombinant adenovirus expressing the wt-p53 gene is antiangiogenic, which may explain, in part, the mechanism of the bystander effect induced by the wt-p53 gene transfer on adjacent tumor cells. (+info)
Calreticulin and calreticulin fragments are endothelial cell inhibitors that suppress tumor growth.
Several angiogenesis inhibitors are fragments of larger proteins that are themselves not active as angiogenesis inhibitors. Vasostatin, the N-terminal domain of calreticulin inclusive of amino acids 1-180, is an angiogenesis inhibitor that exerts antitumor effects in vivo. In the present study, we examined whether the full-length calreticulin molecule shares the antiangiogenic and antitumor activities of vasostatin. Similar to vasostatin, calreticulin selectively inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro, but not cells of other lineages, and suppressed angiogenesis in vivo. When inoculated into athymic mice, calreticulin inhibited Burkitt tumor growth comparably with vasostatin. Calreticulin lacking the N-terminal 1-120 amino acids inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and Burkitt tumor growth in vivo comparably with vasostatin. An internal calreticulin fragment encompassing amino acids 120-180 also inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo comparably with calreticulin and vasostatin. These results suggest that the antiangiogenic activities of vasostatin reside in a domain that is accessible from the full-length calreticulin molecule and localize to calreticulin N-terminal amino acids 120-180. Thus, calreticulin and calreticulin fragments are inhibitors of angiogenesis that directly target endothelial cells, inhibit angiogenesis, and suppress tumor growth. This information may be critical in designing targeted inhibitors of pathological angiogenesis that underlies cancer and other diseases. (+info)
Inhibition of angiogenesis and intrahepatic growth of colon cancer by TAC-101.
We demonstrated in this study that inhibition of intra-hepatic growth of colon cancer by TAC-101 is mediated by inhibition of angiogenesis. In vitro experiments showed that TAC-101 inhibited the proliferation of murine hepatic sinusoidal endothelial (HSE) cells induced by coculture with murine colon 26-L5 (L5) cells. HSE cell proliferation was also enhanced by conditioned medium of L5 cells (CM-L5), and this enhancement of proliferation was abrogated by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody. CM-L5 also induced in vitro tube formation of HSE cells on Matri-gel, and this activity of CM-L5 was abrogated by TAC-101 in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, p.o. administration of TAC-101 inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis in vivo and decreased the weights of L5 tumors in the mouse liver. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis using in vivo tumor tissue suggested that repression of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by TAC-101 was associated with the antiangiogenic activity. TAC-101 alone and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/D,L-leucovorin (LV) significantly inhibited the intrahepatic growth of L5 tumors (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively), whereas 5-FU alone did not (P = 0.088). When TAC-101 was administered with 5-FU/LV, marked enhancement of antitumor activity was observed (95% inhibition; P<0.001). This enhanced antitumor effect was also observed in experiments using Co-3 human colon adenocarcinoma. Concurrent treatment with TAC-101 and 5-FU/LV and sequential treatment with 5-FU/LV followed by TAC-101 resulted in significant augmentation of antitumor activity against Co-3 (overall P = 0.007 and 0.015, respectively). These findings indicate that TAC-101 inhibits tumor angiogenesis and suggest that it may be effective against hepatic metastasis of colon cancer. (+info)
A pharmacokinetically guided Phase II study of carboxyamido-triazole in androgen-independent prostate cancer.
We conducted a Phase II clinical trial of the antiproliferative, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenic agent carboxyamido-triazole (CAI), using pharmacokinetic assessment to guide drug dosing. Fifteen patients who had stage D2 androgen-independent prostate cancer with soft tissue metastases were enrolled. Because CAI previously had been shown to decrease prostate-specific antigen secretion in vitro, this marker was not used to assess disease status. The dose of CAI used in this study was calculated so that plasma steady-state maximum concentrations between 2.0 and 5.0 microg/ml would be maintained. Following the initial dosage adjustment, 93% (14 of 15) of patients were within the predicted range. Fourteen of 15 patients were evaluable for response. All of the 14 evaluable patients demonstrated progressive disease at approximately 2 months. Twelve patients progressed by computed tomography and or bone scan at 2 months, whereas two patients demonstrated clinical progression at 1.5 and 2 months. One patient was removed from study at 6 weeks due to grade II peripheral neuropathy lasting >1 month. Although no clinical responses were noted, a 27.7% decrease in serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration was observed. CAI does not possess clinical activity in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer and soft tissue metastases. Pharmacokinetically guided dosing, although found to be feasible using a Bayesian approach, was not found to be of practical benefit. Although plasma CAI concentrations were maintained within the designated range, grade III toxicity requiring drug discontinuation was still observed. (+info)
Angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin is a distinct component of elastic fibers in vessel walls.
Theendothelial cell inhibitor endostatin (22 kDa) is part of the carboxyl-terminal globular domain of collagen XVIII and shows a widespread tissue distribution. Immunohistology of adult mouse tissues demonstrated a preferred localization in many vessel walls and some other basement membrane zones. A strong immunogold staining was observed across elastic fibers in the multiple elastic membranes of aorta and other large arteries. Staining was less strong along sparse elastic fibers of veins and almost none was observed in the walls of arterioles and capillaries. Strong evidence was also obtained for some intracellular and basement membrane associations. Immunogold double staining of elastic fibers showed a close colocalization of endostatin with fibulin-2, fibulin-1, and nidogen-2, but not with perlecan. Reasonable amounts of endostatin could be extracted from aorta and skin by EDTA, followed by detergents, with aorta being the richest source of the inhibitor identified so far. Solubilizations with collagenase and elastase were approximately fivefold less efficient. Immunoblots of aortic extracts detected major endostatin components of 22-25 kDa whereas skin extracts also contained some larger components. Solid-phase assays demonstrated distinct binding of recombinant mouse endostatin to the fibulins and nidogen-2, consistent with their tissue colocalization. Together, the data indicate several different ways for endostatin to be associated with the extracellular matrix, and its release may determine biological activation. This also defines a novel function for some elastic tissues. (+info)
Antiangiogenic activity of prostate-specific antigen.
BACKGROUND: Measurement of serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as a screening tool for prostate cancer. However, PSA is not prostate specific, having been detected in breast, lung, and uterine cancers. In one study, patients whose breast tumors had higher levels of PSA had a better prognosis than patients whose tumors had lower PSA levels. To test the hypothesis that PSA may have antiangiogenic properties, we evaluated the effects of PSA on endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, which are key steps in angiogenesis, the process by which tumors develop a blood supply. METHODS: To assess the antiproliferative effects of PSA, we treated bovine endothelial cells and human endothelial cell lines (HUVEC and HMVEC-d) with purified human PSA (0.1-10 microM) and then stimulated them with 10 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Effects on FGF-2- or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated endothelial cell migration, invasion, and tube formation were measured by use of one cell line only (HUVEC). PSA was administered to mice at 9 microM for 11 consecutive days after intravenous inoculation of B16BL6 melanoma cells to assess its ability to inhibit the formation of lung colonies (i.e., metastatic tumors). RESULTS: PSA inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and invasion at IC(50) (i. e., the concentration at which inhibition was 50%) values ranging from 0.3-5 microM. In addition, PSA inhibited endothelial cell responses to both angiogenic stimulators tested, FGF-2 and VEGF. In a mouse model of metastatic disease, daily PSA treatment resulted in a 40% reduction in the mean number of lung tumor nodules compared with phosphate-buffered saline treatment (two-sided P =.003). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report that PSA may function in tumors as an endogenous antiangiogenic protein. This function may explain, in part, the naturally slow progression of prostate cancer. Our findings call into question various strategies to inhibit the expression of PSA in the treatment of prostate cancer. (+info)
Antifungal activities of antineoplastic agents: Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to study drug action.
Recent evolutionary studies reveal that microorganisms including yeasts and fungi are more closely related to mammals than was previously appreciated. Possibly as a consequence, many natural-product toxins that have antimicrobial activity are also toxic to mammalian cells. While this makes it difficult to discover antifungal agents without toxic side effects, it also has enabled detailed studies of drug action in simple genetic model systems. We review here studies on the antifungal actions of antineoplasmic agents. Topics covered include the mechanisms of action of inhibitors of topoisomerases I and II; the immunosuppressants rapamycin, cyclosporin A, and FK506; the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin; the angiogenesis inhibitors fumagillin and ovalicin; the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin; and agents that inhibit sphingolipid metabolism. In general, these natural products inhibit target proteins conserved from microorganisms to humans. These studies highlight the potential of microorganisms as screening tools to elucidate the mechanisms of action of novel pharmacological agents with unique effects against specific mammalian cell types, including neoplastic cells. In addition, this analysis suggests that antineoplastic agents and derivatives might find novel indications in the treatment of fungal infections, for which few agents are presently available, toxicity remains a serious concern, and drug resistance is emerging. (+info)
Tumor development under angiogenic signaling: a dynamical theory of tumor growth, treatment response, and postvascular dormancy.
The effects of the angiogenic inhibitors endostatin, angiostatin, and TNP-470 on tumor growth dynamics are experimentally and theoretically investigated. On the basis of the data, we pose a quantitative theory for tumor growth under angiogenic stimulator/inhibitor control that is both explanatory and clinically implementable. Our analysis offers a ranking of the relative effectiveness of these inhibitors. Additionally, it reveals the existence of an ultimate limitation to tumor size under angiogenic control, where opposing angiogenic stimuli come into dynamic balance, which can be modulated by antiangiogenic therapy. The competitive influences of angiogenically driven growth and inhibition underlying this framework may have ramifications for tissue size regulation in general. (+info)