(1/135) Investigation of the most effective provocation test for patients with coronary spastic angina: usefulness of accelerated exercise following hyperventilation.
This study sought to compare the clinical usefulness of the hyperventilation plus cold stress test or the hyperventilation combined with accelerated exercise test with other single tests in patients with coronary spastic angina. The study examined 24 patients (23 men, mean age 66 years) with angiographically confirmed coronary spastic angina and less than 50% stenosis. Moreover, none had spontaneous ST segment elevation before the study. Under no medication for at least 24 h prior, 4 procedures were performed from 09.00 h to 11.00 h: (i) a hyperventilation test for 5 min (HV(5)); (ii) HV(5) combined with a cold stress test for the last 2 min (HV(5)+CS(2)); (iii) a treadmill exercise test based on Bruce's protocol (TM(3)); and (iv) a treadmill exercise test accelerated at 1 min intervals according to Bruce's protocol immediately after HV(5) (HV(5)+TM(1)). The rate of appearance of chest pain and ischemia-induced ECG changes due to HV(5)+TM(1) were significantly higher than the other 3 tests. HV(5)+CS(2) was not superior to HV(5) alone. The incidence of provoked ST segment elevation due to HV(5)+TM(1) was higher than with the other 3 procedures. Thus, in patients with coronary spastic angina, no spontaneous ST segment elevation and near normal coronary arteries, HV(5)+CS(2) was no more useful than HV(5) alone. It is recommended that the newly designed HV(5)+TM(1) combination test be used for documenting evidence of ischemia in patients with coronary spastic angina, low disease activity and near normal coronary arteries. (+info)
(2/135) Consumption of vitamin E in coronary circulation in patients with variant angina.
OBJECTIVES: The plasma status of vitamin E has been suggested to be linked to the activity of coronary artery spasm. This study was designed to determine whether vitamin E is actually consumed in the coronary circulation in patients with active variant angina having repetitive spasm-induced transient myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the aortic root, coronary sinus and right atrium in 12 patients with variant angina due to spasm of the left coronary artery, nine patients with stable effort angina and nine control subjects. Plasma vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma lipid peroxides were measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). RESULTS: At baseline, both plasma alpha- (p < 0.01) and gamma- (p < 0.05) tocopherol levels were significantly lower in the coronary sinus (5.50 +/- 0.50 and 0.55 +/- 0.07 mg/l, mean +/- SEM) than in the aortic root (6.63 +/- 0.57 and 0.63 +/- 0.08 mg/l) and also in the right atrium (6.44 +/- 0.61 and 0.63 +/- 0.09 mg/l) in the variant angina group. The TBARS level was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the coronary sinus than in the aortic in this group. In contrast, these levels were not significantly different between the samples from the coronary sinus and the aortic root or the right atrium in the control group and also in the stable effort angina group. The coronary sinus-aortic difference in plasma vitamin E levels in the variant angina group was not significantly altered after left coronary artery spasm induced by intracoronary injection of acetylcholine. Also, the plasma vitamin E levels in the aortic root, coronary sinus and right atrium all remained unchanged in the stable effort angina group after pacing-induced angina and in the control group after intracoronary administration of acetylcholine. CONCLUSIONS: Transcardiac reduction in plasma vitamin E concentrations concomitant with lipid peroxide formation was demonstrated in patients with active variant angina, suggesting actual consumption of this major endogenous antioxidant. Oxidative stress and vitamin E exhaustion may be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery spasm. (+info)
(3/135) Racial heterogeneity in coronary artery vasomotor reactivity: differences between Japanese and Caucasian patients.
Japanese investigators have provided a substantial contribution in the understanding of coronary vasomotor reactivity. On occasions, their findings have been at variance with those undertaken on caucasian patients, raising speculation that vasomotor differences between races may exist. In a comparative review of the published literature, we evaluated the vasoreactive differences among Japanese and caucasian patients with variant angina or myocardial infarction. In variant angina, Japanese patients appear to have diffusely hyperreactive coronary arteries compared with caucasian people, manifested by their segmental rather than focal spasm, hyperreactive nonspastic vessels and multivessel spasm. These differences may reflect the increased basal tone among Japanese variant angina patients and may relate to controversial differences in endothelial nitric oxide production or autonomic nervous system activity. Provocative vasomotor studies of Japanese patients with a recent myocardial infarction report a higher incidence of inducible spasm than caucasian studies, an observation recently supported by a controlled study. Furthermore, the hyperreactivity was diffuse, occurring in both non-infarct- and infarct-related vessels. These observations support the existence of racial coronary vasomotor reactivity differences but require confirmation in further prospectively conducted studies. (+info)
(4/135) Alterations of autonomic nervous activity in recurrence of variant angina.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether autonomic nervous activity is involved in the recurrence of spontaneous coronary spasm in variant angina. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Cardiology department of a university hospital. PATIENTS: 18 patients with variant angina were divided into single attack group (SA; nine patients) and multiple attack group (MA; nine patients) according to the frequency of ischaemic episodes with ST segment elevation during 24 hour Holter monitoring. METHODS: Heart rate variability indices were calculated using MemCalc method, which is a combination of the maximum entropy method for spectral analysis and the non-linear least squares method for fitting analysis, at 30 second intervals for 30 second periods, from 40 minutes before the attack to 30 minutes after the attack. High frequency (HF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) was defined as a marker of parasympathetic activity, and the ratio of low frequency (LF; 0.15-0.40 Hz) to high frequency (LF/HF) as an indicator of sympathetic activity. The averaged value during the 40 to 30 minute period before an attack was defined as the baseline. RESULTS: Compared with baseline, the HF component decreased in both groups at two minutes before the attack (p < 0.01), and the LF/HF ratio decreased at three minutes before the attack (p < 0.01). The baseline LF/HF was lower in the MA group than in the SA group (p < 0. 01). CONCLUSIONS: A reduction of sympathetic activity may play a key role in determining the recurrence of transient ischaemic events caused by spontaneous coronary spasm in patients with variant angina. (+info)
(5/135) Vasospastic angina likely related to cisplatin-containing chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation for lung cancer.
Vasospastic angina is rarely observed during cancer treatment. The present report describes two males with lung cancer, aged 73 and 61, who developed vasospastic angina during combination treatment of cisplatin-containing chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation. As both patients have smoked and their ages are typical for patients with coronary artery disease, such events may be incidental. However, oncologists should be aware of the possible development of myocardial ischemia during or following administration of antineoplastic agents, especially in elderly patients with pre-existing coronary risk factors or a history of thoracic radiotherapy. (+info)
(6/135) Prognostic significance of the pattern of multivessel spasm in patients with variant angina.
Multivessel spasm in variant angina is believed to be a major prognostic factor. Three patterns of multivessel spasm have been detected: (1) spasm at different sites on different occasions (migratory spasm); (2) spasm sequentially affecting 2 different sites (sequential spasm); and (3) simultaneous spasm at more than 1 site (simultaneous spasm). The present study investigated the prognosis based on this factor for variant angina without fixed coronary stenosis and examined the influence of multivessel spasm on cardiac events. Twenty-six patients were diagnosed as having variant angina without fixed coronary stenosis using 12-lead 24-h ECG recording system and coronary cineangiography. These patients were followed up prospectively for 57.1+/-7.6 months. Of the 26 patients 13 had single-vessel spasm, 6 had migratory multivessel spasm angina, and 7 showed sequential and/or simultaneous multivessel spasm angina. The survival free of serious cardiac events and of all cardiac events was significantly lower for patients with sequential and/or simultaneous multivessel spasm than for those with migratory multivessel spasm (p<0.05, p<0.05), whereas for patients with migratory multivessel spasm the difference comparison with single-vessel spasm did not attain statistical significance (p = ns, p = ns). The results of this study suggest that there seems to be a high-risk subgroup (i.e., sequential and/or simultaneous multivessel spasm) among patients with variant angina. (+info)
(7/135) Plasma endothelin-1 elevation associated with alcohol-induced variant angina.
Vasospastic angina as a result of alcohol ingestion has been reported, but the mechanism of alcohol-induced coronary artery spasm is presently unknown. This report presents 2 cases of alcohol-induced variant angina (VA) with elevated levels of plasma endothelin-1 after alcohol ingestion. In case 1, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration was 3.15 pg/ml before drinking (normal <2.30 pg/ml) and increased to 4.09 pg/ml when measured 5 h after alcohol ingestion. After 2 months of abstinence, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration was 2.88 pg/ml and 6 months after abstinence, it decreased to 2.03 pg/ml (normal range). In case 2, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration was 2.44 pg/ml before drinking and increased to 4.36 pg/ml when measured 5 h after alcohol ingestion. After 2 months of abstinence, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration was 3.04 pg/ml and 6 months after abstinence, it decreased to 2.09 pg/ml (normal range). These 2 cases suggest that a relationship may exist between alcohol-induced VA and elevation in the plasma endothelin-1 concentration after alcohol ingestion. (+info)
(8/135) Beware of the heart: the multiple picture of cardiac involvement in myositis.
A 42-yr-old woman with dermatomyositis had two myocardial infarctions, episodes of acute chest pain and an acute lung oedema. These events were initially misinterpreted as atherosclerotic ischaemic heart disease accompanying the autoimmune disease. The lack of improvement of cardiac symptoms with anti-ischaemic and immunosuppressive drugs indicated other mechanisms. Intracoronary drug provocation as well as myocardial biopsy revealed a coincidence of small-vessel disease and vasospastic angina as a cause for the severe cardiac symptoms. After initiating therapy with high doses of calcium channel blockers, marked improvement of cardiac symptoms occurred. In the pathogenesis of cardiac involvement in dermatomyositis, two different mechanisms should be considered: inflammatory processes due to dermatomyositis and vasoconstriction caused by an impaired regulation of vascular tone, such as abnormal vessel reactivity or disturbed neuropeptide release. Signs of this generalized vasopathy are Raynaud's phenomenon, Prinzmetal's angina and small-vessel disease, which can coincide. In patients with severe cardiac symptoms and autoimmune diseases, Prinzmetal's angina should be excluded by intracoronary drug provocation using acetylcholine. (+info)