The value of late computed tomographic scanning in identification of vascular abnormalities after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of late arterial abnormalities after aortic aneurysm repair and thus to suggest a routine for postoperative radiologic follow-up examination and to establish reference criteria for endovascular repair. METHODS: Computed tomographic (CT) scan follow-up examination was obtained at 8 to 9 years after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair on a cohort of patients enrolled in the Canadian Aneurysm Study. The original registry consisted of 680 patients who underwent repair of nonruptured AAA. When the request for CT scan follow-up examination was sent in 1994, 251 patients were alive and potentially available for CT scan follow-up examination and 94 patients agreed to undergo abdominal and thoracic CT scanning procedures. Each scan was interpreted independently by two vascular radiologists. RESULTS: For analysis, the aorta was divided into five defined segments and an aneurysm was defined as a more than 50% enlargement from the expected normal value as defined in the reporting standards for aneurysms. With this strict definition, 64.9% of patients had aneurysmal dilatation and the abnormality was considered as a possible indication for surgical repair in 13.8%. Of the 39 patients who underwent initial repair with a tube graft, 12 (30.8%) were found to have an iliac aneurysm and six of these aneurysms (15.4%) were of possible surgical significance. Graft dilatation was observed from the time of operation (median graft size of 18 mm) to a median size of 22 mm as measured by means of CT scanning at follow-up examination. Fluid or thrombus was seen around the graft in 28% of the cases, and bowel was believed to be intimately associated with the graft in 7%. CONCLUSION: Late follow-up CT scans after AAA repair often show vascular abnormalities. Most of these abnormalities are not clinically significant, but, in 13.8% of patients, the thoracic or abdominal aortic segment was aneurysmal and, in 15.4% of patients who underwent tube graft placement, one of the iliac arteries was significantly abnormal to warrant consideration for surgical repair. On the basis of these findings, a routine CT follow-up examination after 5 years is recommended. This study provides a population-based study for comparison with the results of endovascular repair. (+info)
Video-assisted crossover iliofemoral obturator bypass grafting: a minimally invasive approach to extra-anatomic lower limb revascularization.
Graft infection continues to be one of the most feared complications in vascular surgery. It can lead to disruption of anastomoses with life-threatening bleeding, thrombosis of the bypass graft, and systemic septic manifestations. One method to ensure adequate limb perfusion after removal of an infected aortofemoral graft is extra-anatomical bypass grafting. We used a minimally invasive, video-assisted approach to implant a crossover iliofemoral obturator bypass graft in a patient with infection of the left limb of an aortofemoral bifurcated graft. This appears to be the first case report describing the use of this technique. (+info)
Three ventriculoplasty techniques applied to three left-ventricular pseudoaneurysms in the same patient.
A 59-year-old male patient underwent surgery for triple-vessel coronary artery disease and left-ventricular aneurysm in 1994. Four months after coronary artery bypass grafting and classical left-ventricular aneurysmectomy (with Teflon felt strips), a left-ventricular pseudoaneurysm developed due to infection, and this was treated surgically with an autologous glutaraldehyde-treated pericardium patch over which an omental pedicle graft was placed. Two months later, under emergent conditions, re-repair was performed with a diaphragmatic pericardial pedicle graft due to pseudoaneurysm reformation and rupture. A 3rd repair was required in a 3rd episode 8 months later. Sternocostal resection enabled implantation of the left pectoralis major muscle into the ventricular defect. Six months after the last surgical intervention, the patient died of cerebral malignancy. Pseudoaneurysm reformation, however, had not been observed. To our knowledge, our case is the 1st reported in the literature in which there have been 3 or more different operative techniques applied to 3 or more distinct episodes of pseudoaneurysm formation secondary to post-aneurysmectomy infection. We propose that pectoral muscle flaps be strongly considered as a material for re-repair of left-ventricular aneurysms. (+info)
Pseudoaneurysm of the vertebral artery.
Pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral artery are rare. Their treatment depends on the location, size, cause, and coexisting injuries. The surgical management of a 22-year-old man who had a large pseudoaneurysm in the 1st portion of the right vertebral artery is described, and an additional 144 cases from the medical literature are briefly reviewed. (+info)
Feasibility of three-dimensional intravascular ultrasonography: preliminary clinical studies.
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical utility of reconstructed three-dimensional intravascular ultrasonography using a voxel-based volume rendering technique. Three-dimensional reconstruction of intravascular ultrasonographic data was performed in 12 patients with various vascular abnormalities during interventional radiology procedures. A stepping motor device was used to pull either a 12.5 or a 20 MHz catheter-based transducer through the lumen of a variety of vessels at a rate of 1.5 mm/s. Images were downloaded to a Life Imaging System for three-dimensional reconstruction. The value of three-dimensional ultrasonographic imaging was evaluated in comparison to conventional intravascular ultrasonography. A variety of abnormalities were demonstrated in reconstructed three-dimensional ultrasound imaging, including arterial atheroma and plaque, aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm, aortic dissection and stenosis (May-Thurner syndrome). The vascular branches and accessory vessels, as well as their relationships to each other, were easily demonstrated on three-dimensional imaging by selecting an appropriate angle, plane, and section of the image. The dimensions and shapes of the vascular lumen were determined in the longitudinal view. Three-dimensional information proved useful for determining the distribution and type of plaque in vessels. Reconstructed three-dimensional imaging allows for global evaluation of the dissection entry site, extent of the flap, and the false lumen of a pseudoaneurysm. Intravascular three-dimensional ultrasonography provides information complementary to that obtained with two-dimensional imaging. It supplies information about spatial relationships of anatomic structures that cannot be evaluated using conventional imaging methods. (+info)
True and anastomotic femoral artery aneurysms: is the risk of rupture and thrombosis related to the size of the aneurysms?
OBJECTIVE: the management of asymptomatic femoral aneurysms remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the diameter of true and anastomotic aneurysms and the risk of rupture. DESIGN: retrospective study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: we reviewed the case records of 17 patients who underwent 17 arterial reconstructive procedures for true femoral aneurysms. In addition, the case records of 76 patients who underwent 90 arterial reconstructive procedures for femoral anastomotic aneurysms were identified and reviewed. RESULTS: the rupture rate for aneurysms less than 5 cm in diameter was 1.6% (one out of 64) compared with 16% (seven out of 43) for those larger than 5 cm. The thrombosis rate for aneurysms less than 5 cm in diameter was 17% compared with 5% for those larger than 5 cm. CONCLUSIONS: this study seems to show that the risk of rupture of femoral artery aneurysms is related to the diameter of the aneurysms. However, the rise in the risk of rupture with increasing size seems less dramatic than for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). (+info)
Spontaneous rupture of a saphenous vein graft.
We present a case of spontaneous rupture of a right coronary bypass vein graft in a 57-year-old woman 10 years after coronary by-pass surgery. Although rare, this diagnosis should be considered in such patients presenting with appropriate symptoms. (+info)
Pseudoaneurysm of the subclavian artery due to Xanthomonas pneumonia in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia: its rupture treated by transcatheter coil embolization.
A 52-year-old male with acute myeloid leukemia developed pseudoaneurysm of the subclavian artery. Pneumonia due to Xanthomonas maltophilia, which was multi-drug resistant, progressed to a lung abscess even under administration of antibiotics. This lung infection contiguous to the left carotid and subclavian arteries was suggested to have caused the pseudoaneurysm of the subclavian artery. The rupture of the aneurysm by penetration to the trachea amounted to about 1,000 ml of bleeding; fortunately the bleeding ceased spontaneously. Nonetheless, an emergency transcatheter coil embolization prevented re-bleeding. Endovascular treatment should be considered especially for aneurysms which develop in patients with underlying diseases. (+info)