Propofol infusion for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in patients with end-stage renal disease.
We have investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol in 11 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared with nine healthy patients during and after a manually controlled three-stage infusion of propofol 21, 12 and 6 mg kg-1 h-1 lasting a minimum of 2 h. Mean total body clearance was not reduced significantly in the ESRD group (30.66 (SD 8.47) ml kg-1 min-1) compared with the control group (33.75 (7.8) ml kg-1 min-1). ESRD patients exhibited a greater, but not statistically significant, volume of distribution at steady state compared with patients in the control group (11.25 (8.86) vs 5.79 (2.14) litre kg-1, respectively). Elimination half-life values were unchanged by renal failure. Mean times to induction of anaesthesia were similar in both groups: 177 (SD 57) and 167 (58) s for the ESRD and control groups, respectively. Waking time after cessation of propofol infusion was significantly shorter in the ESRD group (474 (156) s) compared with the control group (714 (240) s) (P < 0.05). Mean plasma concentrations on waking were similar. We conclude that the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of propofol after infusion were not markedly affected by renal failure. (+info)
Comparison of recovery of propofol and methohexital sedation using an infusion pump.
Two sedative anesthetic agents administered by an infusion pump were compared during third molar surgery. Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups. All subjects received supplemental oxygen via a nasal hood, fentanyl (0.0007 mg/kg intravenous [i.v.] bolus), and midazolam (1 mg/2 min) titrated to effect. Patients then received either 0.3 mg/kg of methohexital or 0.5 mg/kg of propofol via an infusion pump. Upon completion of the bolus, a continuous infusion of 0.05 mg/kg/min methohexital or 0.066 mg/kg/min propofol was administered throughout the procedure. Hemo-dynamic and respiratory parameters and psychomotor performance were compared for the two groups and no significant differences were found. The continuous infusion method maintained a steady level of sedation. Patients receiving propofol had a smoother sedation as judged by the surgeon and anesthetist. (+info)
Comparison of ropivacaine and lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia in volunteers: a preliminary study on anesthetic efficacy and blood level.
BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine may be useful for intravenous regional anesthesia, but its anesthetic effectiveness and toxicity have not been evaluated. METHODS: Two doses of ropivacaine (1.2 and 1.8 mg/kg) and one dose of lidocaine (3 mg/kg) were compared for intravenous regional anesthesia in 15 volunteers. An arm tourniquet was inflated for 30 min after injection and then deflated in two cycles. Sensory block was measured by response to touch, cold, pinprick, and transcutaneous electric stimulation, and motor function was measured by hand grip strength and muscle power. Median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous nerve functions were tested before local anesthetic injection and then at 5-min intervals until blocks resolved. The plasma ropivacaine and lidocaine concentrations were determined from arterial and venous blood samples drawn from the unanesthetized arm. RESULTS: Sensory and motor blocks were complete within 25 min and 30 min, respectively, in all three treatment groups. However, recovery of sensory and motor block after tourniquet release was slowest in the high-dose ropivacaine group. Anesthesia to pinprick and transcutaneous electric stimulation was sustained in all the volunteers in the high-dose ropivacaine group for 55 min and 85 min, respectively, whereas complete recovery was observed in the lidocaine group (P = 0.008) and partial recovery in the low-dose ropivacaine group (P < 0.05) during the same period. Motor block also was sustained in the high-dose ropivacaine group for 70 min, which was significantly longer than in the lidocaine group (P < 0.05). All volunteers (five of five) given lidocaine and one volunteer given high-dose ropivacaine reported light-headedness and hearing disturbance during tourniquet release when the arterial plasma lidocaine and ropivacaine concentrations were 4.7+/-2.1 microg/ml (mean) and 2.7 micro/ml, respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared with lidocaine, intravenous regional anesthesia with ropivacaine appears to be comparable but has longer-lasting residual anesthesia. (+info)
The independent effect of propofol anesthesia on whole body protein metabolism in humans.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of general anesthesia with propofol in the absence of surgical stimulation on whole body protein metabolism. METHODS: Six unpremedicated patients were studied. General anesthesia included propofol (120 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)), vecuronium bromide, and oxygen-enriched air. Changes in protein breakdown, protein oxidation, and synthesis were measured by an isotope dilution technique using a constant infusion of the stable isotope tracer L-[1-13C]leucine (0.008 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) before and during 100 min of propofol anesthesia. The plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids, and cortisol were measured before and during anesthesia. RESULTS: An isotopic steady state of plasma [1-13C]alpha-ketoisocaproate (taken to represent the intracellular leucine precursor pool enrichment for protein synthesis) and expired 13C-carbon dioxide were obtained before and during propofol infusion. Whole body protein breakdown decreased during propofol anesthesia by 6% (P < 0.05), whereas protein synthesis and oxidation did not change significantly. Plasma concentration of cortisol decreased after 90 min of propofol anesthesia (P < 0.05). No significant changes of plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, and non-esterified fatty acids occurred during propofol administration. CONCLUSIONS: Propofol anesthesia did not significantly affect whole body protein synthesis and oxidation but caused a small, although significant, decrease in whole body protein breakdown, possibly mediated through the suppression of plasma cortisol concentration. (+info)
Bolus dose remifentanil for control of haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia.
The effect of three bolus doses of remifentanil on the pressor response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in four groups of 20 patients each. After preoxygenation, anaesthesia was induced with thiopental 5-7 mg kg-1 followed immediately by saline (placebo) or remifentanil 0.5, 1.0 or 1.25 micrograms kg-1 given as a bolus over 30 s. Cricoid pressure was applied just after loss of consciousness. Succinylcholine 1 mg kg-1 was given for neuromuscular block. Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation were performed 1 min later. Arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded at intervals until 5 min after intubation. Remifentanil 0.5 microgram kg-1 was ineffective in controlling the increase in heart rate and arterial pressure after intubation but the 1.0 and 1.25 micrograms kg-1 doses were effective in controlling the response. The use of the 1.25 micrograms kg-1 dose was however, associated with a decrease in systolic arterial pressure to less than 90 mm Hg in seven of 20 patients. (+info)
Pharmacokinetics, induction of anaesthesia and safety characteristics of propofol 6% SAZN vs propofol 1% SAZN and Diprivan-10 after bolus injection.
AIMS: In order to avoid the potential for elevated serum lipid levels as a consequence of long term sedation with propofol, a formulation of propofol 6% in Lipofundin(R) MCT/LCT 10% (Propofol 6% SAZN) has been developed. The pharmacokinetics, induction of anaesthesia and safety characteristics of this new formulation were investigated after bolus injection and were compared with the commercially available product (propofol 1% in Intralipid(R) 10%, Diprivan-10) and propofol 1% in Lipofundin(R) MCT/LCT 10% (Propofol 1% SAZN). METHODS: In a randomised double-blind study, 24 unpremedicated female patients received an induction dose of propofol of 2.5 mg kg-1 over 60 s which was followed by standardized balanced anaesthesia. The patients were randomized to receive propofol as Propofol 6% SAZN, Propofol 1% SAZN or Diprivan-10. RESULTS: For all formulations the pharmacokinetics were adequately described by a tri-exponential equation, as the propofol concentrations collected early after the injection suggested an additional initial more rapid phase. The average values for clearance (CL), volume of distribution at steady-state (Vd,ss ), elimination half-life (t1/2,z ) and distribution half-life (t1/2, lambda2) observed in the three groups were 32+/-1.5 ml kg-1 min-1, 2. 0+/-0.18 l kg-1, 95+/-5.6 min and 3.4+/-0.20 min, respectively (mean+/-s.e.mean, n=24) and no significant differences were noted between the three formulations (P >0.05). The half-life of the additional initial distribution phase (t1/2,lambda1 ) in all subjects ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 min. Anaesthesia was induced successfully and uneventfully in all cases, and the quality of induction was adequate in all 24 patients. The induction time did not vary between the three formulations and the average induction time observed in the three groups was 51+/-1.3 s which corresponded to an induction dose of propofol of 2.1+/-0.06 mg kg-1 (mean+/-s.e. mean, n=24). The percentage of patients reporting any pain on injection did not vary between the formulations and was 17% for the three groups. No postoperative phlebitis or other venous sequelae of the vein used for injection occurred in any of the patients at recovery of anaesthesia nor after 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: From the above results, we conclude that the alteration of the type of emulsion and the higher concentration of propofol in the new parenteral formulation of propofol does not affect the pharmacokinetics and induction characteristics of propofol, compared with the currently available product. Propofol 6% SAZN can be administered safely and has the advantage of a reduction of the load of fat and emulsifier which may be preferable when long term administration of propofol is required. (+info)
Issues of consent in colonoscopy: if a patient says 'stop' should we continue?
Colonoscopy is generally performed under intravenous sedation, which may alter a patient's responses and perception. What should be done if, during the procedure, a patient withdraws the consent previously given? The views of gastroenterologists and patients were ascertained by mailing questionnaires to 100 members of the British Society of Gastroenterology and to 100 patients who had undergone colonoscopy with intravenous sedation. Only 1 of 59 eligible consultants who replied said they would stop the procedure after a single request, but a further 51 would stop if repeatedly asked to do so. Of the remaining 7 who would complete the procedure, 1 nevertheless believed that a sedated patient is capable of making a rational decision. Of the 51 patients who returned a usable questionnaire, 25 thought that the procedure should be stopped immediately following a request, while 26 felt that the doctor should continue. The divergent and sometimes inconsistent views found in this study highlighted the need for further clarification of the issue of informed consent for procedures conducted with the patient under sedation. (+info)
Effect of nitrous oxide on myogenic motor potentials evoked by a six pulse train of transcranial electrical stimuli: a possible monitor for aortic surgery.
Intraoperative recording of myogenic motor potentials evoked by transcranial electrical stimulation (tcMEP) is a method of monitoring the integrity of the vulnerable motor pathways during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) surgery. Deflation of the left lung during TAAA surgery may result in impairment of arterial oxygenation. Ventilation with nitrous oxide may cause further desaturation. We studied the effects of 20%, 40% and 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen on within-patient variability and magnitude of tcMEP in response to six pulse transcranial electrical stimulation during fentanyl-low-dose propofol anaesthesia with partial neuromuscular block. Ten patients (two females; aged 63-74 yr) were studied. After achieving a stable anaesthetic state and before surgery, 10 tcMEP were recorded from the right tibialis anterior muscle during addition of 20%, 40% and 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen in random order. When ventilation with 40% or 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen was performed, there was 50-70% depression of tcMEP amplitude (P < 0.05) and 40-60% reduction in tcMEP area under the curve (P < 0.05) compared with 20% nitrous oxide in oxygen. There was no significant difference in the coefficients of variation for tcMEP between the three nitrous oxide anaesthetic regimens. Our results suggest that increasing doses of nitrous oxide reduce the MEP waveform to six pulse transcranial electrical stimulation, but even with 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen, the tcMEP were recordable and as reproducible as with 20% and 40% nitrous oxide regimens. The method is sufficiently robust for use in aortic surgery. (+info)