(1/2714) Role of alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2.
Interaction between integrin alphavbeta3 and extracellular matrix is crucial for endothelial cells sprouting from capillaries and for angiogenesis. Furthermore, integrin-mediated outside-in signals co-operate with growth factor receptors to promote cell proliferation and motility. To determine a potential regulation of angiogenic inducer receptors by the integrin system, we investigated the interaction between alphavbeta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in human endothelial cells. We report that tyrosine-phosphorylated VEGFR-2 co-immunoprecipitated with beta3 integrin subunit, but not with beta1 or beta5, from cells stimulated with VEGF-A165. VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mitogenicity induced by VEGF-A165 were enhanced in cells plated on the alphavbeta3 ligand, vitronectin, compared with cells plated on the alpha5beta1 ligand, fibronectin or the alpha2beta1 ligand, collagen. BV4 anti-beta3 integrin mAb, which does not interfere with endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin, reduced (i) the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2; (ii) the activation of downstream transductor phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase; and (iii) biological effects triggered by VEGF-A165. These results indicate a new role for alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells. Besides being the most important survival system for nascent vessels by regulating cell adhesion to matrix, alphavbeta3 integrin participates in the full activation of VEGFR-2 triggered by VEGF-A, which is an important angiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration. (+info)
(2/2714) Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 by UV irradiation is inhibited by wortmannin without affecting c-iun expression.
Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs)/stress-activated protein kinases is an early response of cells upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun is currently understood to stimulate the transactivating potency of AP-1 (e.g., c-Jun/c-Fos; c-Jun/ATF-2), thereby increasing the expression of AP-1 target genes. Here we show that stimulation of JNK1 activity is not a general early response of cells exposed to genotoxic agents. Treatment of NIH 3T3 cells with UV light (UV-C) as well as with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) caused activation of JNK1 and an increase in c-Jun protein and AP-1 binding activity, whereas antineoplastic drugs such as mafosfamide, mitomycin C, N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea, and treosulfan did not elicit this response. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin specifically blocked the UV-stimulated activation of JNK1 but did not affect UV-driven activation of extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). To investigate the significance of JNK1 for transactivation of c-jun, we analyzed the effect of UV irradiation on c-jun expression under conditions of wortmannin-mediated inhibition of UV-induced stimulation of JNK1. Neither the UV-induced increase in c-jun mRNA, c-Jun protein, and AP-1 binding nor the activation of the collagenase and c-jun promoters was affected by wortmannin. In contrast, the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98056, which blocked ERK2 but not JNK1 activation by UV irradiation, impaired UV-driven c-Jun protein induction and AP-1 binding. Based on the data, we suggest that JNK1 stimulation is not essential for transactivation of c-jun after UV exposure, whereas activation of ERK2 is required for UV-induced signaling leading to elevated c-jun expression. (+info)
(3/2714) Salmonella typhimurium and lipopolysaccharide stimulate extracellularly regulated kinase activation in macrophages by a mechanism involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phospholipase D as novel intermediates.
Activation of the extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is part of the early biochemical events that follow lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of macrophages or their infection by virulent and attenuated Salmonella strains. Phagocytosis as well as the secretion of invasion-associated proteins is dispensable for ERK activation by the pathogen. Furthermore, the pathways used by Salmonella and LPS to stimulate ERK are identical, suggesting that kinase activation might be solely mediated by LPS. Both stimuli activate ERK by a mechanism involving herbimycin-dependent tyrosine kinase(s) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Phospholipase D activation and stimulation of protein kinase C appear to be intermediates in this novel pathway of MEK/ERK activation. (+info)
(4/2714) Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C are required for the inhibition of caspase activity by epidermal growth factor.
The mechanism by which growth factors exert an anti-apoptotic function on many cell types is not well understood. This issue is addressed in relation to epidermal growth factor (EGF) which inhibits apoptosis induced by staurosporine or wortmannin in an epithelial tumour cell line (CNE-2). The presence of EGF substantially reduced the in vitro Ac-DEVD-AMC hydrolytic activity and almost completely suppressed the intracellular cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in staurosporine- or wortmannin-treated cells. Staurosporine but not wortmannin caused the intracellular proteolytic processing of pro-caspase-3 and this event was transiently inhibited by EGF. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis was not inhibited by EGF in the presence of wortmannin or LY294002. Similarly, EGF failed to inhibit wortmannin-induced apoptosis in the presence of staurosporine, chelerythrine chloride or Go6850. These results suggest that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C play a role in the survival function of EGF but the reduction of cellular caspase activity cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of pro-caspase-3 activation. (+info)
(5/2714) Nerve growth factor induces zif268 gene expression via MAPK-dependent and -independent pathways in PC12D cells.
In this study we examined the contribution of MAPK1 and 2 [also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)-1 and 2] to the induction of zif268 mRNA in PC12D cells by using two methods to block the activation of these kinases. In one set of experiments, we inhibited the activation of MAPK by pretreating cells with PD098059, a specific inhibitor of MEK (MAPKK), the immediate upstream activator of MAPK. In the second set of experiments, we blocked the activation of MAPK by overexpressing N17Ras, a dominant-negative form of Ha-Ras. These two approaches yielded similar results and showed that inhibition of MAPK blocks less than half of the induction of zif268 mRNA by NGF. Much of the residual induction of zif268 mRNA is blocked by low concentrations of wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase. Since PI 3-kinase was previously shown to function upstream in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and JNK is known to phosphorylate and activate transcription factors that regulate the expression of zif268, we investigated the role of JNK in the induction of zif268 mRNA by NGF. Stimulation of PC12D cells with NGF weakly activates JNK, but this activation is enhanced rather than inhibited by pretreatment with wortmannin, suggesting that JNK does not function downstream of PI 3-kinase in the induction of zif268 mRNA. A role for JNK in the induction of the zif268 gene is indicated, however, by the fact that cotransfection of expression vectors encoding JIP-1 or the JNK binding domain of JIP-1, which act as dominant-negative inhibitors of JNK, partially blocks the NGF-mediated induction of a luciferase reporter gene linked to the zif268 promoter. Together, these results suggest that MAPK, PI-3 kinase and JNK each play a role in the induction of zif268 gene expression by NGF in PC12D cells. (+info)
(6/2714) Autophosphorylation of p110delta phosphoinositide 3-kinase: a new paradigm for the regulation of lipid kinases in vitro and in vivo.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases which also possess an in vitro protein kinase activity towards themselves or their adaptor proteins. The physiological relevance of these phosphorylations is unclear at present. Here, the protein kinase activity of the tyrosine kinase-linked PI3K, p110delta, is characterized and its functional impact assessed. In vitro autophosphorylation of p110delta completely down-regulates its lipid kinase activity. The single site of autophosphorylation was mapped to Ser1039 at the C-terminus of p110delta. Antisera specific for phospho-Ser1039 revealed a very low level of phosphorylation of this residue in cell lines. However, p110delta that is recruited to activated receptors (such as CD28 in T cells) shows a time-dependent increase in Ser1039 phosphorylation and a concomitant decrease in associated lipid kinase activity. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid, an inhibitor of Ser/Thr phosphatases, also dramatically increases the level of Ser1039-phosphorylated p110delta. LY294002 and wortmannin blocked these in vivo increases in Ser1039 phosphorylation, consistent with the notion that PI3Ks, and possibly p110delta itself, are involved in the in vivo phosphorylation of p110delta. In summary, we show that PI3Ks are subject to regulatory phosphorylations in vivo similar to those identified under in vitro conditions, identifying a new level of control of these signalling molecules. (+info)
(7/2714) Replication-mediated DNA damage by camptothecin induces phosphorylation of RPA by DNA-dependent protein kinase and dissociates RPA:DNA-PK complexes.
Replication protein A (RPA) is a DNA single-strand binding protein essential for DNA replication, recombination and repair. In human cells treated with the topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin or etoposide (VP-16), we find that RPA2, the middle-sized subunit of RPA, becomes rapidly phosphorylated. This response appears to be due to DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and to be independent of p53 or the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. RPA2 phosphorylation in response to camptothecin required ongoing DNA replication. Camptothecin itself partially inhibited DNA synthesis, and this inhibition followed the same kinetics as DNA-PK activation and RPA2 phosphorylation. DNA-PK activation and RPA2 phosphorylation were prevented by the cell-cycle checkpoint abrogator 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), which markedly potentiates camptothecin cytotoxicity. The DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) was found to bind RPA which was replaced by the Ku autoantigen upon camptothecin treatment. DNA-PKcs interacted directly with RPA1 in vitro. We propose that the encounter of a replication fork with a topoisomerase-DNA cleavage complex could lead to a juxtaposition of replication fork-associated RPA and DNA double-strand end-associated DNA-PK, leading to RPA2 phosphorylation which may signal the presence of DNA damage to an S-phase checkpoint mechanism. KEYWORDS: camptothecin/DNA damage/DNA-dependent protein kinase/RPA2 phosphorylation (+info)
(8/2714) A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway that differentially regulates c-Raf and A-Raf.
Cytokines trigger the rapid assembly of multimolecular signaling complexes that direct the activation of downstream protein kinase cascades. Two protein kinases that have been linked to growth factor-regulated proliferation and survival are mitogen-activated protein/ERK kinase (MEK) and its downstream target Erk, a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Using complementary pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that MEK and Erk activation requires a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)-generated signal in an interleukin (IL)-3-dependent myeloid progenitor cell line. Analysis of the upstream pathway leading to MEK activation revealed that inhibition of PI3-K did not block c-Raf activation, whereas MEK activation was effectively blocked under these conditions. Furthermore, agents that elevated cAMP suppressed IL-3-induced c-Raf activation but did not inhibit MEK activation. Because c-Raf activation and MEK activation were inversely affected by PI3-K- and cAMP-dependent pathways, we examined whether IL-3 activated the alternative Raf isoforms A-Raf and B-Raf. Although IL-3 did not activate B-Raf, A-Raf was activated by the cytokine. Moreover, A-Raf activation, like MEK activation, was blocked by inhibition of PI3-K but was insensitive to cAMP. Experiments with dominant negative mutants of the Raf isoforms showed that overexpression of dominant negative c-Raf did not prevent MEK activation. However, dominant negative A-Raf effectively blocked MEK activation, suggesting that activation of the MEK-Erk signaling cascade is mediated through A-Raf. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-3 receptors engage and activate both c-Raf and A-Raf in hemopoietic cells. However, these intermediates are differentially regulated by upstream signaling cascades and selectively coupled to downstream signaling pathways. (+info)