The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture.
We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent. (+info)
Pharmacokinetics of flutamide in patients with renal insufficiency.
AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of flutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogenic compound, and its pharmacologically active metabolite, hydroxyflutamide, in renal insufficiency. Haemodialysis (HD) clearance of flutamide and hydroxyflutamide was also determined. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed for flutamide and hydroxyflutamide in 26 male subjects with normal renal function (creatinine clearance by 24 h urine collection, CLcr, greater than 80 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2); n=6) or reduced renal function; CLcr=50-80 (n=7), 30-49 (n=3), 5-29 (n=4), and <5 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2)-HD (n=6), following a single, oral 250 mg flutamide dose. Subjects undergoing HD received a second 250 mg dose of flutamide 4 h prior to HD; blood and dialysate were collected during HD to determine dialysability of flutamide and hydroxyflutamide. RESULTS: Cmax, tmax, AUC, t1/2, and renal clearance of flutamide and hydroxyflutamide did not differ between groups. Less than 1% of the dose appeared in dialysate as hydroxyflutamide. No serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Renal function did not affect flutamide nor hydroxyflutamide disposition. HD did not alter hydroxyflutamide pharmacokinetics. Dosing adjustments for renal impairment or HD are not indicated for flutamide. (+info)
Androgen-independent induction of prostate-specific antigen gene expression via cross-talk between the androgen receptor and protein kinase A signal transduction pathways.
Transcription of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene escapes regulation by androgens in advanced prostate cancer. To determine the molecular mechanism(s) of androgen-independent regulation of the PSA gene, the possibility that the androgen receptor (AR) is activated in the absence of androgen by stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA) was investigated. Activation of PKA by forskolin resulted in elevated expression of the PSA gene in androgen-depleted LNCaP cells, an effect that was blocked by the antiandrogen, bicalutamide. Further evidence that induction of PSA gene expression was dependent on AR was obtained from experiments using PC3 cells devoid of AR. Neither PSA, PB, nor ARR3 androgen-responsive reporters could be induced by activation of PKA in the absence of transfected AR. In addition, when nuclear AR from forskolin-treated LNCaP cells was incubated with oligonucleotides encoding an androgen response element of the PSA promoter and examined by electromobility shift assay, an increase in AR-androgen response element complex formation was observed. Lastly, cotransfection of an expression vector for a chimeric protein encoding the amino-terminal domain of the human AR linked to Gal4 and a 5xGal4UAS reporter gene construct resulted in activation of the amino-terminal domain of the AR by stimulation of PKA activity. These results demonstrate androgen-independent induction of PSA gene expression in prostate cancer cells by an AR-dependent pathway. (+info)
Does androgen insufficiency cause lacrimal gland inflammation and aqueous tear deficiency?
PURPOSE: The current investigators have shown that androgen treatment suppresses inflammation and stimulates the function of lacrimal glands in mouse models of Sjogren's syndrome. Recently, others have hypothesized that androgen insufficiency induces an autoimmune process in lacrimal tissue, leading to inflammation, a Sjogren's syndrome-like pathology, and aqueous tear deficiency. The purpose of the present study was to test this hypothesis. METHODS: Lacrimal glands were obtained from adult testicular feminized (Tfm) and control mice; castrated rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits; and castrated rats without anterior or whole pituitary glands and were processed for histology and image analysis. Tear volumes were measured in mice, in patients taking antiandrogen medications, and in age-matched human control subjects. RESULTS: Tfm mice, which are completely resistant to classical androgen action, did not have increased lymphocyte infiltration in their lacrimal glands or decreased tear volumes. No inflammation was evident in lacrimal tissues of male or female rats, guinea pigs, or rabbits 12 to 31 days after castration, no inflammation existed in rat lacrimal glands 15 to 31 days after orchiectomy and pituitary removal, and no aqueous tear deficiency was apparent in patients receiving antiandrogen therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Androgen deficiency may promote the progression of Sjogren's syndrome and its associated lacrimal gland inflammation, meibomian gland dysfunction, and severe dry eye. However, androgen insufficiency alone does not cause lacrimal gland inflammation, a Sjogren's syndrome-like pathology in lacrimal tissue, or aqueous tear deficiency in nonautoimmune animals and humans. (+info)
From HER2/Neu signal cascade to androgen receptor and its coactivators: a novel pathway by induction of androgen target genes through MAP kinase in prostate cancer cells.
Overexpression of the HER2/Neu protooncogene has been linked to the progression of breast cancer. Here we demonstrate that the growth of prostate cancer LNCaP cells can also be increased by the stable transfection of HER2/Neu. Using AG879, a HER2/Neu inhibitor, and PD98059, a MAP kinase inhibitor, as well as MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MPK-1), in the transfection assay, we found that HER2/Neu could induce prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a marker for the progression of prostate cancer, through the MAP kinase pathway at a low androgen level. Reporter assays and mammalian two-hybrid assays further suggest this HER2/Neu-induced androgen receptor (AR) transactivation may function through the promotion of interaction between AR and AR coactivators, such as ARA70. Furthermore, we found this HER2/Neu --> MAP kinase --> AR-ARAs --> PSA pathway could not be blocked completely by hydroxyflutamide, an antiandrogen used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Together, these data provide a novel pathway from HER2/Neu to AR transactivation, and they may represent one of the reasons for the PSA re-elevation and hormone resistance during androgen ablation therapy in prostate cancer patients. (+info)
Differentially expressed genes in hormone refractory prostate cancer: association with chromosomal regions involved with genetic aberrations.
Differential gene expression between the androgen sensitive human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and an insensitive clonal variant, LNCaP-r, was demonstrated by suppression subtractive hybridization. Twenty-one sequences were identified of which 9 are homologous to known genes, 11 are represented by expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and 1 is novel. We present data for 5 of 7 sequences confirmed to be differentially expressed by Northern blot analysis and semiquantitative RT-PCR. Only one gene, fibronectin (FN), was highly overexpressed (>60-fold) in LNCaP-r cells, consistent with previously reported overexpression of FN in prostate cancer. Four sequences were down-regulated in LNCaP-r cells, including an inactive variant of the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (UEV-1), a novel metalloproteinase-related collagenase (PM5), and a potential tumor suppressor gene (breast basic conserved gene, BBC1). UEV-1 is multifunctional, regulates the cell cycle via cdk1, has homology to MMS2 and likewise functions as a DNA protection protein, and also has homology to TSG101. Aberrant splice variants of TSG101 occur frequently in both breast and prostate cancer, but its mechanism of action is unknown. FN, BBC1, and UEV-1 localize to regions of chromosomal aberration (2q3.4, 16q24.3, and 20q13.2, respectively) associated with advanced prostate cancer and thus may be highly relevant to disease progression. (+info)
Overexpression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 is associated with tumor recurrence in human prostate cancer.
The INK4A gene maps to the 9p21 region and was initially described [M. Serrano et al., Nature (Lond.), 366: 704-707, 1993; A. Kamb et al., Science (Washington DC), 264: 436-440, 1994] as encoding a 148-amino-acid protein termed p16. The p16 protein associates exclusively with Cdk4 and Cdk6, inhibiting their complexation with D-type cyclins and the consequent phosphorylation of pRb. This contributes to cell cycle arrest. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate patterns of p16 expression in a well-characterized cohort of prostatic adenocarcinomas while exploring potential associations between alterations of p16 and clinicopathological variables. Normal and malignant tissues from 88 patients with prostate carcinoma were examined. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry assays were used to determine the status of the INK4A exon 1alpha transcripts and levels of p16 protein, respectively. Associations between altered patterns of expression and clinicopathological variables, including pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason grade, pathological stage, and hormonal status, were evaluated using the Mantel-Haenszel chi2 test. Biochemical (PSA) relapse after surgery was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Levels of p16 expression and INK4A exon 1alpha transcripts in normal prostate and benign hyperplastic tissues were undetectable. However, p16 nuclear overexpression was observed in 38 (43%) prostate carcinomas, whereas the remaining 50 (57%) cases showed undetectable p16 levels. Overexpression of p16 protein was found to correlate with increased INK4A exon 1alpha transcripts. Moreover, p16 overexpression was associated with a higher pretreatment PSA level (P = 0.018), the use of neoadjuvant androgen ablation (P = 0.001), and a sooner time to PSA relapse after radical prostatectomy (P = 0.002). These data suggest that p16 overexpression is associated with tumor recurrence and a poor clinical course in patients with prostate cancer. (+info)
Selection for androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancers treated with androgen antagonist.
The role of androgen receptor (AR) mutations in androgen-independent prostate cancer (PCa) was determined by examining AR transcripts and genes from a large series of bone marrow metastases. Mutations were found in 5 of 16 patients who received combined androgen blockade with the AR antagonist flutamide, and these mutant ARs were strongly stimulated by flutamide. In contrast, the single mutant AR found among 17 patients treated with androgen ablation monotherapy was not flutamide stimulated. Patients with flutamide-stimulated AR mutations responded to subsequent treatment with bicalutamide, an AR antagonist that blocks the mutant ARs. These findings demonstrate that AR mutations occur in response to strong selective pressure from flutamide treatment. (+info)