Human hookworm infection in the 21st century. (9/92)

The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This chapter reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across multiple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, ideally supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also on-going efforts to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines.  (+info)

Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections. (10/92)

This study compared the efficiency of Kato-Katz thick smear and thick smear techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths. The sensitivity of the thick smear technique was higher than that of the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of all helminths except Schistosoma mansoni.  (+info)

Relationship between intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and anemia during pregnancy. (11/92)

A direct relationship exists between the intensity of hookworm infection and blood loss. Other parasites may also contribute to blood loss. Our objective was to assess the relationship between the intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and anemia in pregnant women in a highly endemic area of Peru. Recruitment occurred between April and November 2003. Overall, 47.31% of 1,042 women had anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL), 47.22% were infected with hookworm and 82.25% with Trichuris. Prevalences of infections were not associated with anemia. However, those infected with moderate and heavy intensities of hookworm infection (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.17) and those with moderate and heavy intensities of both hookworm and Trichuris infections (OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.13) were more likely to suffer from anemia than women having no or light intensities. These results support routine anthelminthic treatment within prenatal care programs in highly endemic areas.  (+info)

Coincident filarial, intestinal helminth, and mycobacterial infection: helminths fail to influence tuberculin reactivity, but BCG influences hookworm prevalence. (12/92)

The prevalence of helminth and tuberculosis infections is high in South India, whereas Bacille-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine efficacy is low. Our aim was to determine whether concurrent helminth infection alters the ability to mount a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to tuberculin. In a cross-sectional study in southern India, individuals 6-65 years of age were screened for intestinal helminths, circulating filarial antigenemia, tuberculin reactivity, active tuberculosis, and history of BCG vaccination; 54% were purified protein derivative (PPD) positive, 32% had intestinal helminth infection, 9% were circulating filarial antigen positive, and 0.5% had culture-confirmed active tuberculosis. Only age and BCG vaccination were significantly associated with PPD reactivity; however, BCG vaccination was associated with a lower prevalence of hookworm infection relative to those without prior BCG vaccination. Neither intestinal helminth infection nor filarial infection was associated with diminished frequencies of PPD positivity. Our findings suggest that preceding helminth infection does not influence significantly the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to tuberculin.  (+info)

Prevalence of soil transmitted nematodes on Nukufetau, a remote Pacific island in Tuvalu. (13/92)

BACKGROUND: The population of Nukufetau, a remote coral atoll island in Tuvalu in the Western Pacific, received annual mass drug administration (MDA) of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole under the Pacific Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis program in 2001, 2002 and 2003, with the last MDA occurring six months before a cross-sectional survey of the whole population for soil transmitted helminths (STH). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in May 2004 recruited 206 residents (35.2% of the population) who provided a single faecal sample that was preserved, concentrated and examined microscopically. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of STH was 69.9%; only hookworm and Trichuris trichiura were diagnosed. Trichuris was present in 68.4% with intensity of infection being light in 56.3%, medium in 11.7% and heavy in 0.5%. Hookworm occurred in 11.7% with intensity of infection 11.2% being light and medium in 0.5%. Twenty individuals (9.7%) had dual infections. The prevalence of Trichuris was constant across all ages while the prevalence of hookworm was significantly lower in residents below 30 years of age. In the age group 5-12 years comparison of results with a 2001 survey 1 suggested that the prevalence of STH has declined minimally, due to sustained high prevalence of Trichuris, while hookworm has declined dramatically from 34.4% to 1.6%. CONCLUSION: The results of this survey suggest that although the MDA appears to have reduced hookworm prevalence in residents below 30 years of age, there has been minimal effect on Trichuris prevalence. An integrated program to control STH is required.  (+info)

A successful experience of soil-transmitted helminth control in the Republic of Korea. (14/92)

Soil-transmitted helminths (STH), namely Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms (Ancylostoma and Necator), present a global health problem to about a half of the earthos population. In the Republic of Korea, STH were highly prevalent and were considered a high priority target for national control. To promote the control, a non-governmental organization named Korea Association for Parasite Eradication (currently Korea Association of Health Promotion) was founded in 1964, and mass fecal examination followed by selective mass chemotherapy with anthelmintics was performed twice a year from 1969 to 1995 targeting whole nationwide schoolchildren. Meanwhile, decreasing patterns of national STH infections have been monitored by 7 timeso quinquennial national surveys targeting general population. In 1971, the overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 84.3% (Ascaris 58.2%, Trichuris 65.4%, and hookworms 10.7%), which became 63.2% in 1976, 41.1% in 1981, 12.9% in 1986, 3.8% in 1992, 2.4% in 1997, and 4.3% (Ascaris 0.03%, Trichuris 0.02%, and hookworms 0%) in 2004. During the control period, national economy rapidly developed, and living standards including environment, sanitation, and agricultural technology greatly improved, which undoubtedly boosted the STH control effects. Our experience indicates that social driving force to establish an eligible national control system to conduct repeated mass chemotherapy, together with improvement of environment and sanitation, is important for initiating and achieving STH control in a developing community.  (+info)

Arthrostoma miyazakiense (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) infection in raccoon dogs of Korea and experimental transmission to dogs. (15/92)

Arthrostoma miyazakiense (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) is a hookworm species reported from the small intestines of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan. Five Korean raccoon dogs (N. procyonoides koreensis) caught from 2002 to 2005 in Jeollanam-do (Province), a southeastern area of South Korea, contained helminth eggs belonging to 4 genera (roundworm, hookworm, whipworm, and Capillaria spp.) and cysts of Giardia sp. in their feces. Necropsy findings of 1 raccoon dog revealed a large number of adult hookworms in the duodenum. These hookworms were identified as Arthrostoma miyazakiense based on the 10 articulated plates observed in the buccal capsule and the presence of right-sided prevulval papillae. Eggs of A. miyazakiense were 60-65 x 35-40 micrometer (av. 62.5 x 35 micrometer), and were morphologically indistinguishable from those of Ancylostoma caninum. The eggs were cultured to infective 2nd stage larvae via charcoal culture, and 100 infective larvae were used to experimentally infect each of 3 mixed-bred puppies. All puppies harbored hookworm eggs in their feces on the 12th day after infection. This is the first report thus far concerning A. miyazakiense infections in raccoon dogs in Korea, and the first such report outside of Japan.  (+info)

X-ray structures of Na-GST-1 and Na-GST-2 two glutathione S-transferase from the human hookworm Necator americanus. (16/92)

BACKGROUND: Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition of adults and children in the developing world. As part of on-going efforts to control hookworm infection, The Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective L3 larval stages and adult stages of the parasite. Adult stage antigens include the cytosolic glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs). Nematode GSTs facilitate the inactivation and degradation of a variety of electrophilic substrates (drugs) via the nucleophilic addition of reduced glutathione. Parasite GSTs also play significant roles in multi-drug resistance and the modulation of host-immune defense mechanisms. RESULTS: The crystal structures of Na-GST-1 and Na-GST-2, two major GSTs from Necator americanus the main human hookworm parasite, have been solved at the resolution limits of 2.4 A and 1.9 A respectively. The structure of Na-GST-1 was refined to R-factor 18.9% (R-free 28.3%) while that of Na-GST-2 was refined to R-factor 17.1% (R-free 21.7%). Glutathione usurped during the fermentation process in bound in the glutathione binding site (G-site) of each monomer of Na-GST-2. Na-GST-1 is uncomplexed and its G-site is abrogated by Gln 50. These first structures of human hookworm parasite GSTs could aid the design of novel hookworm drugs. CONCLUSION: The 3-dimensional structures of Na-GST-1 and Na-GST-2 show two views of human hookworm GSTs. While the GST-complex structure of Na-GST-2 reveals a typical GST G-site that of Na-GST-1 suggests that there is some conformational flexibility required in order to bind the substrate GST. In addition, the overall binding cavities for both are larger, more open, as well as more accessible to diverse ligands than those of GSTs from organisms that have other major detoxifying mechanisms. The results from this study could aid in the design of novel drugs and vaccine antigens.  (+info)