Use of topical landmarks for percutaneous projection of intracranial tumors for neurosurgical oncology. (49/113)


Anatomy of Meckel's cave and the trigeminal ganglion: anatomical landmarks for a safer approach to them. (50/113)


Forensic norms of female and male Lebanese adults. (51/113)

Patients born to Lebanese parents and grandparents, visiting two private practice orthodontic clinics, with normal occlusion and no need for any kind of orthodontic treatment during a six month period and satisfying inclusion criteria, were asked permission to include their lateral cephalometric radiographs in this study. Sixty three individuals met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen cephalometric measurements were taken (seven linear and nine angular) were analyzed on each radiograph. Measurements were compared between genders using student's t-test. The study population included 31 females and 32 males with a mean (+/-SD) of 21.6 (+/-4.0) and 21.3 (+/-3.9) years for males and females respectively. Men had significantly larger skeletal linear measurements: the mandibular base menton to gonion (Me-Go) (p=0.027), the total mandibular length of condylon to gnathion (Co-Gn) (p=0.009) and significantly larger angular measurements: sella to nasion to subspinal point (S-N-SS) (p=0.006), and sella to nasion to supramental point (S-N-Spm) (p=0.009). The results of this study demonstrated that male skeletal linear and angular measurements are significantly larger in Lebanese adult males compared to Lebanese adult females.  (+info)

Clinical target volume delineation including elective nodal irradiation in preoperative and definitive radiotherapy of pancreatic cancer. (52/113)


Incidence of clavicular rhomboid fossa (impression for costoclavicular ligament) in the Brazilian population: forensic application. (53/113)

In the last years, anthropology has been widely explored mainly when related to bones due to its morphologic characteristics, such as the rhomboid fossa of the clavicle. This study examined the incidence of the rhomboid fossa in paired clavicles of Brazilian subjects obtained from 209 adult bodies of known age and sex (107 males and 102 females) on which postmortem examinations had been performed by the senior author. The data were submitted to qualitative statistical analysis according to Fisher. There was a statistical difference (p= 5.98 x 10-23) between sexes related to the frequency of the rhomboid fossa. The fossa was absent in 97,1% of the female clavicles and the incidence of bilateral fossa was present in 2,9% of females. The incidence of bilateral fossa was 29% for male clavicles. The sexual or side differences in the incidence of the fossa could be found in this study, and qualitative analysis can corroborate sex determination of unidentified bodies in forensic medicine.  (+info)

Biomechanical approach to human bitemark reconstruction. (54/113)

This paper investigates the changes in upper and lower dental bite records that occur when the anterior teeth occlude into a three-dimensional rather than a flat object. METHODS: anterior bite registrations were obtained from 20 volunteers with full and unrestored dentitions. As a three- dimensional, life-like bite target we cast a silicone replica from the impression of an actual arm, fitted with a rigid bony interior. Each participant was asked to bite into a single layer of softened bite registration wax wrapped around the same location on the fake arm, as well as into a flat wafer of the same material. Upper and lower bite registrations were then scanned in the same location on a flat bed scanner. We analysed the sizes of the different bite marks by means of landmark- and semi-landmark analysis to calculate Procrustes distances between tooth outlines. In order to analyse shape variation between the two types of bite registration we carried out principal components analyses on the partial warp scores. These were derived from partial Procrustes coordinates aligned by means of thin-plate spline decomposition based on a bending energy matrix. Our results show that there are significant differences in the shape of the upper or lower teeth when they occlude into a flat or three- dimensional target. We conclude that the use of a traditional flat bite registration in human bitemark reconstruction and analysis has to be seriously questioned.  (+info)

Soft tissue depression at the iliac crest prominence: a new landmark for identifying the L4-L5 interspace. (55/113)

BACKGROUND: One of the most common approaches to identifying the L4-L5 interspace is using the iliac crest as a landmark. We propose a new landmark to identify the L4-L5 interspace based on the soft tissue depression palpable at the iliac crest prominence. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and time saving when using this new landmark compared to using the iliac crest to perform a lumbar plexus block. METHODS: Fifty-four patients scheduled for lower limb surgery were randomly allocated to have a lumbar plexus block performed using the iliac crest (Chayen's approach) or the soft tissue depression (Borghi's approach). The landmarks for both approaches were drawn on each patient prior to randomization (N.=27 per group). All the blocks were performed by an anesthesiologist familiar with both techniques using a nerve stimulator and 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine. The time to achieve successful needle placement and the number of needle re-directions, as well as the onset time for the sensory and motor blockade, were recorded. RESULTS: All the blocks using Borghi's approach were performed successfully. With the Chayen's approach, there were 5 needle placement failures. The mean times to onset of a successful block after injection of the local anesthetic did not differ between the two groups: 17.8+/-3.9 min for the Chayen vs. 15.9+/-2.4 min for the Borghi's approach (P=0.14). However, the mean time to achieve correct needle placement was 7.6+/-3.2 min with the Chayen's approach compared to 5.1 (+/-2.6 SD) min with the Borghi's approach (P<0.01). The Chayen's approach also required a significantly higher median number of needle redirections (2 [inter-quartile range (IQR): 0-4] vs. 0 [IQR: 0-4], P<0.01). In obese patients (BMI >/=30 kg/m(2)), the mean placement time was 10.5+/-1.7 min vs. 4.8+/-2.1 min (P<0.01), and median number of needle re-directions was 2.5 (IQR: 2-3) vs. 0.5 (IQR: 0-3) (P=0.04), with the Chayen and Borghi's approach, respectively. CONCLUSION: Use of the palpable soft tissue depression at the iliac crest prominence for performing a lumbar plexus block offered several potential advantages over the standard inter-iliac crest approach.  (+info)

Acetabular component positioning using anatomic landmarks of the acetabulum. (56/113)