Dextromethorphan and pain after total abdominal hysterectomy.
Dextromethorphan is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist which has been shown to inhibit the development of cutaneous secondary hyperalgesia after tissue trauma. We studied 60 ASA I-II patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients received either dextromethorphan 27 mg capsules, two doses before operation and three doses in the first 24 h after operation, or placebo. Visual analogue pain scores (VAS) at 24 and 48 h were assessed at rest, on coughing and on sitting up, and were not significantly different between groups. Morphine consumption from a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device was also not significantly different between groups. Evidence of secondary hyperalgesia was assessed with von Frey hairs 10 cm above the Pfannenstiel incision. Both groups of patients exhibited evidence of secondary hyperalgesia after 24 and 48 h but there were no significant differences between groups. There was also no difference between groups in VAS scores at 1 month. (+info)
Effects of prophylactic nalmefene on the incidence of morphine-related side effects in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia.
BACKGROUND: Opioid-related side effects associated with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia can be reduced by a low-dose naloxone infusion. The influence of nalmefene, a pure opioid antagonist with a longer duration of action, on opioid-related side effects has not been evaluated. This study was designed to determine the dose-response relation for nalmefene for the prevention of morphine-related side effects in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. METHODS: One hundred twenty women undergoing lower abdominal surgery were enrolled in the study. General anesthesia was induced using thiopental and rocuronium and maintained with desflurane, nitrous oxide, and fentanyl or sufentanil. All patients received neostigmine and glycopyrrolate to reverse residual neuromuscular blockade. No prophylactic antiemetics were administered. At the end of surgery, patients were randomized to receive saline, 15 microg nalmefene, or 25 microg nalmefene intravenously. The need for antiemetic and antipruritic drugs and the total consumption of morphine during the 24-h study were recorded. The incidences of postoperative nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and pain were recorded 30 min after patients were admitted to the postanesthesia care unit. In addition, patient remembrance of these side effects was noted at 24 h after operation. RESULTS: The need for antiemetic and antipruritic medications during the 24-h study period was significantly lower in the patients receiving nahmefene compared with those receiving placebo. However, the need to treat side effects was similar in the two nahmefene groups. Prophylactic administration of nalmefene reduced the patients remembrance of nausea and itching as assessed 24 h after operation. Although the total consumption of morphine during the 24-h study period was similar in the three groups, retrospectively patients who received nalmefene characterized their pain as less severe in the previous 24 h. CONCLUSION: Compared with placebo, prophylactic administration of nalmefene significantly decreased the need for antiemetics and antipruritic medications in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine. (+info)
Continuous epidural infusion of ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia after major abdominal surgery: comparative study with i.v. PCA morphine.
We have compared the quality of three regimens of postoperative analgesia (continuous epidural administration of ropivacaine (Ropi. group), epidural ropivacaine and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with i.v. morphine (Ropi. + PCA group) and PCA morphine alone (PCA group)) during the first postoperative 24 h in a multicentre, randomized, prospective study. Postoperative analgesia was studied in 130 patients after major abdominal surgery performed under general anaesthesia. The ropivacaine groups received 20 ml of epidural bolus ropivacaine 2 mg ml-1 via the epidural route at the end of surgery, followed by continuous infusion of 10 ml h-1 for 24 h. The Ropi. + PCA group also had access to i.v. PCA morphine 1 mg, with a 5-min lockout. The PCA group received morphine as the sole postoperative pain treatment. The two ropivacaine groups had lower pain scores (P < 0.01) than the PCA group. Morphine consumption was higher in the PCA group (P < 0.05) than in the two ropivacaine groups. The quality of pain relief was rated as good or excellent in 79-85% of patients in the three groups. The percentage of patients without motor block increased between 4 and 24 h from 61% to 89% in the Ropi. group, and from 51% to 71% in the Ropi. + PCA group. (+info)
Prospective, randomized comparison of epidural versus parenteral opioid analgesia in thoracic trauma.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate systemic versus epidural opioid administration for analgesia in patients sustaining thoracic trauma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The authors have previously shown that epidural analgesia significantly reduces the pain associated with significant chest wall injury. Recent studies report that epidural analgesia is associated with a lower catecholamine and cytokine response in patients undergoing elective thoracotomy compared with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This study compares the effect of epidural analgesia and PCA on pain relief, pulmonary function, cathechol release, and immune response in patients sustaining significant thoracic trauma. METHODS: Patients (ages 18 to 60 years) sustaining thoracic injury were prospectively randomized to receive epidural analgesia or PCA during an 18-month period. Levels of serum interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured every 12 hours for 3 days by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary catecholamine levels were measured every 24 hours. Independent observers assessed pulmonary function using standard techniques and analgesia using a verbal rating score. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients of the 34 enrolled completed the study. Age, injury severity score, thoracic abbreviated injury score, and length of hospital stay did not differ between the two groups. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, or TNF-alpha or urinary catecholamines between the two groups at any time point. Epidural analgesia was associated with significantly reduced plasma levels of IL-8 at days 2 and 3, verbal rating score of pain on days 1 and 3, and maximal inspiratory force and tidal volume on day 3 versus PCA. CONCLUSIONS: Epidural analgesia significantly reduced pain with chest wall excursion compared with PCA. The route of analgesia did not affect the catecholamine response. However, serum levels of IL-8, a proinflammatory chemoattractant that has been implicated in acute lung injury, were significantly reduced in patients receiving epidural analgesia on days 2 and 3. This may have important clinical implications because lower levels of IL-8 may reduce infectious or inflammatory complications in the trauma patient. Also, tidal volume and maximal inspiratory force were improved with epidural analgesia by day 3. These results demonstrate that epidural analgesia is superior to PCA in providing analgesia, improving pulmonary function, and modifying the immune response in patients with severe chest injury. (+info)
Epidural analgesia during labor and maternal fever.
BACKGROUND: In recent observational studies, epidural analgesia during labor at patient request has been associated with maternal fever. The authors report a secondary analysis of fever in women who were randomized to receive either epidural or patient-controlled intravenous analgesia during labor. METHODS: Maternal tympanic temperature was measured during spontaneous labor in 715 women at term who were randomized to either epidural analgesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl or to patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with meperidine. Intent-to-treat analysis of women with fever (temperature > or = 38.0 degrees C) versus those without was performed using Student t test and Fisher exact test to determine statistical significance (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Epidural analgesia was associated with maternal fever (odds ratio = 4.0; 95% confidence interval = 2.0-7.7), as was nulliparity (odds ratio = 4.1; 95% confidence interval = 1.8-9.1) and labor longer than 12 h (odds ratio = 5.4; 95% confidence interval = 2.9-9.9). These factors were all independent variables for maternal fever when analyzed using logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: Epidural analgesia is associated with maternal fever. However, nulliparity and dysfunctional labor are also significant cofactors in the fever attributed to epidural analgesia. (+info)
Influence of bolus size on efficacy of postoperative patient-controlled analgesia with piritramide.
We have examined the influence of bolus size on efficacy, opioid consumption, side effects and patient satisfaction during i.v. patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in 60 patients (ASA I-II, aged 32-82 yr) after abdominal surgery. Patients were allocated randomly, in a double-blind manner, to receive PCA with a bolus dose of either piritramide 0.75 mg or 1.5 mg (lockout 5 min) for postoperative pain control. Mean 24 h piritramide consumption differed significantly between groups (11.4 (SD 5.8) mg vs 22.5 (18.3) mg; P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in the number of applied bolus doses, pain scores, pain relief (VAS), sedation, nausea, pruritus and patient satisfaction. We conclude that a PCA regimen with a bolus dose of piritramide 0.75 mg and a lockout time of 5 min was effective in the treatment of postoperative pain, but did not reduce the occurrence of side effects. (+info)
Nocturnal hypoxaemia and respiratory function after endovascular and conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.
Respiratory function, assessed by pre- and postoperative spirometry, and overnight pulse oximetry recordings, was compared prospectively in patients undergoing infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair by endovascular or conventional surgery. Episodic hypoxaemia was common in both groups before operation and up to the fifth night after operation. The frequency and severity of hypoxaemia were greater in the conventional group (P < 0.05). FEV1 and FVC decreased significantly on the third and fifth days after operation in both groups (P < 0.05); decreases in FVC were greater in patients undergoing conventional surgery. On the fifth day after operation, FVC had recovered to 86% and 64% of preoperative values in the endovascular and conventional groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Duration of surgery was greater (P < 0.05) and duration of postoperative artificial ventilation significantly less (P < 0.05) after endovascular repair. Postoperative PCA morphine consumption and duration of use were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in patients undergoing conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. (+info)
Comparison of midwife top-ups, continuous infusion and patient-controlled epidural analgesia for maintaining mobility after a low-dose combined spinal-epidural.
We studied 133 women given a combined spinal-epidural for analgesia in labour. The initial intrathecal dose contained bupivacaine 2.5 mg with fentanyl 25 micrograms. When the mothers were comfortable, they were allocated randomly to one of three groups: continuous infusion (group Cl, n = 46), midwife top-ups (group MW, n = 43) or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (group PCEA, n = 44), to maintain analgesia throughout labour. All epidural solutions contained 0.1% bupivacaine and fentanyl 2 micrograms ml-1. Motor block was assessed by the mother's ability to straight leg raise (SLR). Four hours after combined spinal-epidural analgesia, 88.1% of women could SLR in group MW, 83.7% in group PCEA and 57.8% in group Cl (P = 0.002). Total use of bupivacaine was highest in group Cl (mean 11.3 (SD 3.3) mg h-1) compared with group MW (7.5 (3.1) mg h-1) and group PCEA (9.1 (2.1) mg h-1) (P < 0.001). Analgesia was similar between groups and overall satisfaction was equally high. (+info)