(1/22) A liquid-stable reagent for lactic acid levels. Application to the Hitachi 911 and Beckman CX7.
We evaluated the use of a new lactate oxidase-based reagent for the determination of serum and plasma lactic acid levels with the Hitachi 911 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) and the Beckman CX7 (Beckman Instruments, Brea, CA). Evaluation studies demonstrated on-board stability of at least 3 months and a calibration stability of more than 5 months. Within- and between-day imprecision of this reagent was less than 2% for both applications. The reagent is free of the deleterious effects of triglyceride up to levels of 1,400 mg/dL (15.8 mmol/L), bilirubin to concentrations of 24.6 mg/dL (420 mumol/L), and hemoglobin, from lysed erythrocytes, to levels of more than 0.3 g/dL (3.0 g/L). When used on the Hitachi 911 for the determination of plasma lactate concentrations, the reagent correlates with the Dade aca III (Dade International, Deerfield, IL). When applied to the Beckman CX7 for the determination of serum lactate levels, the method correlates with the Beckman method. (+info)
(2/22) Kinetic flow-injection determination of hydrogen peroxide by use of iron(III)-catalyzed coloration and its application to the determination of biological substances.
A kinetic flow-injection (FI) method is described for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. This method is based on an iron(III)-catalyzed oxidative coupling of 4-aminoantipyrine with N,N-dimethylaniline by hydrogen peroxide. By measuring the change in the absorbance of the dye formed at 560 nm, 1 x 10(-6) - 6 x 10(-4) M hydrogen peroxide could be determined with a sampling rate of 15 h(-1). The relative standard deviation (n = 30) was 0.8% for 5 x 10(-5) M hydrogen peroxide. There was little interference of the co-existing ions and compounds. After introducing some immobilized enzyme reactors to the FI system, the proposed method allowed the determination of glucose and uric acid ranging from 1 x 10(-6) to 6 x 10(-4) M with relative standard deviations of below 2%. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining these substances in serum samples. (+info)
(3/22) Evidence of the effect of dipyrone on the central nervous system as a determinant of delayed gastric emptying observed in rats after its administration.
Dipyrone administered intravenously (iv) delays gastric emptying (GE) in rats. The objectives of the present study were to assess: 1) the effect of the dose of dipyrone and time after its iv administration on GE in rats, 2) the effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VgX) and bilateral electrolytic lesion of the paraventricular nucleus (PVNX) on the delayed GE induced by the drug, and 3) the intracerebroventricular (icv) action of dipyrone and of one of its metabolites, 4-aminoantipyrine on GE. Male Wistar rats received saline labeled with phenol red intragastrically as a test meal. GE was indirectly assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention (GR) of the test meal 10 min after administration by gavage. Dipyrone delays GE in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thirty minutes after the iv administration of 80 mg/kg dipyrone, the animals showed significantly higher GR (mean = 62.6%) compared to those receiving vehicle (31.5%). VgX and PVNX significantly reduced the iv effect of 80 mg/kg dipyrone (mean %GR: VgX = 28.3 vs Sham = 55.5 and PVNX = 34.5 vs Sham = 52.2). Icv administration of 4 mol dipyrone caused a significant increase in GR (54.1%) of the test meal 10 min later, whereas administration of 4 mol 4-aminoantipyrine had no effect (34.4%). Although the dipyrone dose administered icv was 16 times lower than that applied iv, for the same time of action (10 min), the GR of animals that received the drug icv (54.1%) or iv (54.5%) did not differ significantly. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the effect of dipyrone in delaying GE is due to the action of the drug on the central nervous system, with the participation of the PVN and of the vagus nerve. (+info)
(4/22) Determination of cefadroxil by sequential injection with spectrophotometric detector.
A sequential injection analysis (SIA) spectrophotometric procedure for cefadroxil determination has been developed. The SIA instrumentation was modified to achieve the desired function and operations by using the software developed to interface the PC with the conventional SIA system. The method is based on the measurement of a red, water-soluble product formed by the reaction between cefadroxil and 4-aminoantipyrine in the presence of alkaline potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) at 510 nm. Optimum conditions for determining the drug were investigated. Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration ranges of 1 - 10 mg L(-1) and 10 - 50 mg L(-1) with a detection limit (3 sigma) of 0.17 mg L(-1) and a limit of quantification (10 sigma) of 0.56 mg L(-1). The relative standard deviations of 1.98% and 1.93% for 5 mg L(-1) and 30 mg L(-1) of the drug, respectively (n = 11) are obtained. The proposed method has been applied satisfactorily to the determination of cefadroxil in commercial pharmaceutical formulations with a sampling rate of 100 h(-1). Results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by the official HPLC method at the 95% confidence level. (+info)
(5/22) New and simple plate test for screening relative transfructosylation activity of fungi.
Several microorganisms are reported to have transfructosylation activity due to fructosyltransferase and/or fructofuranosidase activities. However, the search for other fungi with higher transfructosylation activity remains a challenge. So, a presumptive and indirect colorimetric plate assay for the evaluation of transfructosylation activity in fungi was developed which involved the simultaneous determination in the same plate of glucose and fructose released from sucrose. The method entailed the (a) glucose oxidase-peroxidase coupled reaction using phenol and 4-aminoantipyrine for determination of glucose; and (b) fructose dehydrogenase oxidation in the presence of a tetrazolium salt for determination of fructose. The presence of enzymes with transfructosylation activity was identified by the formation of pink (presence of glucose) and blue (presence of fructose) halos around the fungal colony. In conclusion, the results showed that the method is suitable for screening a large number of fungi due to its simplicity, reproducibility and rapidity and also gives a relative quantitative idea of the transfructosylation activity of different fungi species. (+info)
(6/22) Inhibition of cyclooxygenases by dipyrone.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dipyrone is a potent analgesic drug that has been demonstrated to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX). In contrast to classical COX-inhibitors, such as aspirin-like drugs, dipyrone has no anti-inflammatory effect and a low gastrointestinal toxicity, indicating a different mode of action. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of dipyrone on COX. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The four major metabolites of dipyrone, including the two pharmacologically active metabolites, 4-methyl-amino-antipyrine (MAA) and amino-antipyrine (AA), were used to characterise their binding to COX and haem as well as their effects on the biochemical properties of COX. Mass spectrometry, UV and visible photometry were used to study binding and prostaglandin production. Levels of anti-oxidant enzymes were assessed by Western blotting. KEY RESULTS: The pharmacologically active metabolites of dipyrone, MAA and AA, did not inhibit COX activity in vitro like classical COX inhibitors, but instead redirected the prostaglandin synthesis, ruling out inhibition of COX through binding to its active site. We found that MAA and AA formed stable complexes with haem and reacted with hydrogen peroxide in presence of haem, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) or COX. Moreover, MAA reduced Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) and accordingly increased lipid peroxidation and the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes in cultured cells and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our data suggest that the pharmacologically active metabolites of dipyrone inhibit COX activity by sequestering radicals which initiate the catalytic activity of this enzyme or through the reduction of the oxidative states of the COX protein. (+info)
(7/22) Effect of 4-aminoantipyrine on gastric compliance and liquid emptying in rats.
Dipyrone (Dp) delays gastric emptying (GE) in rats. There is no information about whether 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), one of its metabolites, has the same effect. The objectives of the present study were to assess the effects of AA and Dp on GE when administered intravenously (iv) and intracerebroventricularly (icv) (240 micromol/kg and 4 micromol/animal, respectively) and on gastric compliance when administered iv (240 micromol/kg). GE was determined in male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (5-10 per group) after icv or iv injection of the drug by measuring percent gastric retention (GR) of a saline meal labeled with phenol red 10 min after administration by gavage. Gastric compliance was estimated in anesthetized rats (10-11 per group), with the construction of volume-pressure curves during intragastric infusion of a saline meal. Compliance was significantly greater in animals receiving Dp (mean +/- SEM = 0.26 +/- 0.009 mL/mmHg) and AA (0.24 +/- 0.012 mL/mmHg) than in controls (0.19 +/- 0.009 mL/mmHg). AA and Dp administered iv significantly increased GR (64.4 +/- 2.5 and 54.3 +/- 3.8%, respectively) compared to control (34 +/- 2.2%), a phenomenon observed only with Dp after icv administration. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy reduced the effect of AA (GR = 31.4 +/- 1.5%) compared to sham-treated animals. Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, administered icv significantly reduced the effect of AA (GR = 28.1 +/- 1.3%). We conclude that Dp and AA increased gastric compliance and AA delayed GE, with the participation of the vagus nerve, through a pathway that does not involve a direct action of the drug on the central nervous system. (+info)
(8/22) Assay for detection and enumeration of genetically engineered microorganisms which is based on the activity of a deregulated 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate monooxygenase.
An assay system was developed for the enumeration of genetically engineered microorganisms expressing a deregulated 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (TFD) monooxygenase, which converts phenoxyacetate (PAA) to phenol. In PAA-amended cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1C(pRO103) and Pseudomonas putida PPO301(pRO103), strains which express a deregulated TFD monooxygenase, phenol production was proportional to cell number. Phenol was reacted, under specific conditions, with a 4-aminoantipyrine dye to form an intensely colored dye-phenol complex (AAPPC), which when measured spectrophotometrically could detect as few as 10(3) cells per ml. This assay was corroborated by monitoring the disappearance of PAA and the accumulation of phenol by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. The AAPPC assay was modified for use with plate cultures and clearly distinguished colonies of PPO301(pRO103) and PAO1C(pRO103) from a strain expressing a regulated TFD monooxygenase. Colonies of P. putida PPO301(pRO101) remained cream colored, while colonies of PPO301(pRO103) and PAO1C(pRO103) turned a distinct red. (+info)