The distribution of genetic diversity in a Brassica oleracea gene bank collection related to the effects on diversity of regeneration, as measured with AFLPs.
The ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources in gene banks involves the selection of accessions to be conserved and the maintenance of these accessions for current and future users. Decisions concerning both these issues require knowledge about the distribution of genetic diversity within and between accessions sampled from the gene pool, but also about the changes in variation of these samples as a result of regenerations. These issues were studied in an existing gene bank collection of a cross-pollinating crop using a selection of groups of very similar Dutch white cabbage accessions, and additional groups of reference material representing the Dutch, and the global white cabbage gene pool. Six accessions were sampled both before and after a standard regeneration. 30 plants of each of 50 accessions plus 6 regeneration populations included in the study were characterised with AFLPs, using scores for 103 polymorphic bands. It was shown that the genetic changes as a result of standard gene bank regenerations, as measured by AFLPs, are of a comparable magnitude as the differences between some of the more similar accessions. The observed changes are mainly due to highly significant changes in allele frequencies for a few fragments, whereas for the majority of fragments the alleles occur in similar frequencies before and after regeneration. It is argued that, given the changes of accessions over generations, accessions that display similar levels of differentiation may be combined safely. (+info)
Use of AFLP for differentiation of Metschnikowia pulcherrima strains for postharvest disease biological control.
Metschnikowia pulcherrima occurs naturally on fruits, buds and floral parts of apple trees. Some strains are effective as biocontrol agents against postharvest decay of apples and other fruits. The usefulness of the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was evaluated for the genetic analysis of 26 strains of M. pulcherrima, isolated from different sources in different geographical regions. With six AFLP primer pairs, 729 polymorphic bands were scored. The technique showed a high discriminatory power. Genetic relationships between strains were also estimated using AFLP. All the isolates from the carposphere of apple, previously tested as biocontrol agents, were grouped in a single cluster with a high bootstrap value (97), indicating robustness and reproducibility. AFLP patterns could clearly distinguish the different strains and research is in progress to use some putative specific bands for single tag sequence (STS) conversion to develop isolate-specific markers. (+info)
Body size evolution simultaneously creates and collapses species boundaries in a clade of scincid lizards.
Speciation is generally viewed as an irreversible process, although habitat alterations can erase reproductive barriers if divergence between ecologically differentiated species is recent. Reversed speciation might also occur if geographical contact is established between species that have evolved the same reproductive isolating barrier in parallel. Here, we demonstrate a loss of intrinsic reproductive isolation in a clade of scincid lizards as a result of parallel body size evolution, which has allowed for gene flow where large-bodied lineages are in secondary contact. An mtDNA phylogeny confirms the monophyly of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex, but rejects that of two size-differentiated ecomorphs. Mate compatibility experiments show that the high degree of body size divergence imposes a strong reproductive barrier between the two morphs; however, the strength of the barrier is greatly diminished between parallel-evolved forms. Since two large-bodied lineages are in geographical contact in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, we were also able to test for postzygotic isolation under natural conditions. Analyses of amplified fragment length polymorphisms show that extensive gene exchange is occurring across the contact zone, resulting in an overall pattern consistent with isolation by distance. These results provide evidence of reversed speciation between clades that diverged from a common ancestor more than 12Myr ago. (+info)
Genome scan to detect genetic structure and adaptive genes of natural populations of Cryptomeria japonica.
We investigated 29 natural populations of Cryptomeria japonica using 148 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers to elucidate their genetic structure and identify candidate adaptive genes of this species. In accordance with the inferred evolutionary history of the species during and after the last glacial episode, the genetic diversity was higher in western populations than in northern populations. The results of phylogenetic and genetic structure analyses suggest that populations of the two main varieties of the species have clearly diverged from each other and that two of the examined loci are strongly associated with the differentiation between the two varieties. Using a coalescent simulation based on F(ST) and H(e) values, we detected five genes that had higher, and two that had lower, values than the respective 99% confidence intervals (C.I.s) that are theoretically expected intervals under a neutral infinite-island model. We also detected 13 outlier loci using a coalescent simulation based on the assumption that the 2 varieties originated from the splitting of an ancestral population. Four of these loci were detected by both methods, two of which were detected in a genetic structure analysis as loci associated with differentiation between the two varieties of the species, and are strong candidates for genes that have been subject to selection. (+info)
A linkage map reveals a complex basis for segregation distortion in an interpopulation cross in the moss Ceratodon purpureus.
We report the construction of a linkage map for the moss Ceratodon purpureus (n = 13), based on a cross between geographically distant populations, and provide the first experimental confirmation of maternal chloroplast inheritance in bryophytes. From a mapping population of 288 recombinant haploid gametophytes, genotyped at 121 polymorphic AFLP loci, three gene-based nuclear loci, one chloroplast marker, and sex, we resolved 15 linkage groups resulting in a map length of approximately 730 cM. We estimate that the map covers more than three-quarters of the C. purpureus genome. Approximately 35% of the loci were sex linked, not including those in recombining pseudoautosomal regions. Nearly 45% of the loci exhibited significant segregation distortion (alpha = 0.05). Several pairs of unlinked distorted loci showed significant deviations from multiplicative genotypic frequencies, suggesting that distortion arises from genetic interactions among loci. The distorted autosomal loci all exhibited an excess of the maternal allele, suggesting that these interactions may involve nuclear-cytoplasmic factors. The sex ratio of the progeny was significantly male biased, and the pattern of nonrandom associations among loci indicates that this results from interactions between the sex chromosomes. These results suggest that even in interpopulation crosses, multiple mechanisms act to influence segregation ratios. (+info)
Targeted transcript mapping for agronomic traits in potato.
A combination of cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used to identify genes co-segregating with earliness of tuberization in a diploid potato population. This approach identified 37 transcript-derived fragments with a polymorphic segregation pattern between early and late tuberizing bulks. Most of the identified transcripts mapped to chromosomes 5 (19 markers) and 12 (eight markers) of the paternal map. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of tuberization time also identified earliness QTLs on these two chromosomes. A potato bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with four of the markers linked to the main QTL. BAC contigs containing the markers showing the highest association with the trait have been identified. One of these contigs has been anchored to chromosome 5 on an ultradense genetic map of potato, which could be used as a starting point for map-based cloning of genes associated with earliness. (+info)
An assessment of the genetic diversity within Ganoderma strains with AFLP and ITS PCR-RFLP.
Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most important medicinal materials and plant pathogens. Because of its specific interhybridization, the genetic background, however, is relatively unclear. It made identification of Ganoderma strains, especially closely related strains difficulty. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 14 primer combinations and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR-RFLP were used in a comparative study which was designed to investigate the closely related Ganoderma strains genetic relations at molecular level. The analysis of 37 Ganoderma strains showed there were 177 polymorphic AFLP markers and 12 ITS PCR-RFLP markers, and all accessions could be uniquely identified. Among the Ganoderma accessions, similarity coefficients ranged from 0.07692 to 0.99194 in AFLP. The Ganoderma strains formed a tight cluster in nine groups in AFLP whereas seven groups in ITS PCR-RFLP. The cluster analysis revealed that the taxonomical system of subgenus Ganoderma is composed of Sect. Ganoderma and Sect. Phaeonema, and the strain 22 should be a variant form of strain 21. All methods delineated the Ganoderma strains from the different regions seeming to show a greater level of genetic diversity. It indicated that the genotype study at molecular level is a useful complement method to the current classification system of Ganoderma strains based on morphological traits. The congruency of the experiments was analyzed using the biostatistical software DPS V3.01. (+info)
A large Legionnaires' disease outbreak in Pamplona, Spain: early detection, rapid control and no case fatality.
An outbreak of Legionnaire's disease was detected in Pamplona, Spain, on 1 June 2006. Patients with pneumonia were tested to detect Legionella pneumophila antigen in urine (Binax Now; Binax Inc., Scarborough, ME, USA), and all 146 confirmed cases were interviewed. The outbreak was related to district 2 (22 012 inhabitants), where 45% of the cases lived and 50% had visited; 5% lived in neighbouring districts. The highest incidence was found in the resident population of district 2 (3/1000 inhabitants), section 2 (14/1000). All 31 cooling towers of district 2 were analysed. L. pneumophila antigen (Binax Now) was detected in four towers, which were closed on 2 June. Only the strain isolated in a tower situated in section 2 of district 2 matched all five clinical isolates, as assessed by mAb and two genotyping methods, AFLP and PFGE. Eight days after closing the towers, new cases ceased appearing. Early detection and rapid coordinated medical and environmental actions permitted immediate control of the outbreak and probably contributed to the null case fatality. (+info)