Mechanisms of hypoxic vasodilatation of isolated rat mesenteric arteries: a comparison with metabolic inhibition.
1. Hypoxia (PO2 < 5 mmHg) decreased vessel tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries precontracted with either high [K+] or the thromboxane analogue U46619. This response was not altered by N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) and indomethacin. 2. Simultaneous measurement of pHi and tension showed that the decrease in vessel tone was accompanied by an intracellular acidification. Similar reductions in tone and pHi were observed with the metabolic inhibitors 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and sodium azide. 3. The presence of the lactate transport inhibitor alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHC) increased the magnitude of the acidification and resulted in a significantly faster reduction in tone in response to hypoxia. Addition of CHC to normoxic tissues caused both a vasodilatation and a reduction of pHi. 4. A decrease in pHi induced on washout of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) resulted in an increase in tone. 5. Relaxation to hypoxia or metabolic inhibition was unaffected when the change in pHi was neutralized by addition of the weak base trimethylamine (TMA). 6. It is concluded that severe hypoxia decreases tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries by a mechanism which is independent of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Both severe hypoxia and metabolic inhibition reduced pHi, although this does not appear to be contributing to the changes in tone observed. (+info)
Metabolic acidosis-induced retinopathy in the neonatal rat.
PURPOSE: Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced retinopathy (CDIR) in the neonatal rat, analogous to human retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), was previously described by our group. In this model, it is possible that CO2-associated acidosis provides a biochemical mechanism for CDIR. Therefore, the effect of pure metabolic acidosis on the developing retinal vasculature of the neonatal rat was investigated. METHODS: A preliminary study of arterial blood pH was performed to confirm acidosis in our model. In neonatal rats with preplaced left carotid artery catheters, acute blood gas samples were taken 1 to 24 hours after gavage with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight or saline. In the subsequent formal retinopathy study, 150 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in litters of 25 and randomly assigned to be gavaged twice daily with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight (n = 75) or saline (n = 75) from day 2 to day 7. After 5 days of recovery, rats were killed, and retinal vasculature was assessed using fluorescein perfusion and ADPase staining techniques. RESULTS: In the preliminary pH study, the minimum pH after NH4Cl gavage was 7.10+/-0.10 at 3 hours (versus 7.37+/-0.03 in controls, mean +/- SD, P < 0.01). In the formal retinopathy study, preretinal neovascularization occurred in 36% of acidotic rats versus 5% of controls (P < 0.001). Acidotic rats showed growth retardation (final weight 16.5+/-3.0 g versus 20.2+/-2.6 g, P < 0.001). The ratio of vascularized to total retinal area was smaller in acidotic rats (94%+/-4% versus 96%+/-2%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic acidosis alone induces neovascularization similar to ROP in the neonatal rat. This suggests a possible biochemical mechanism by which high levels of CO2 induce neovascularization and supports the suggestion that acidosis may be an independent risk factor for ROP. (+info)
Re-activation of the peptidyltransferase centre of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes after inactivation by exposure to low concentrations of magnesium ion.
1. The larger subrivosomal particles of rabbit reticulocytes retained full activity in the puromycin reaction and in poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis after 4h at 0 degrees C when buffered 0.5M-NH4Cl/10-30mM-MgCl2 was the solvent. 2. Activity in the puromycin reaction was diminished to approx 10% after 15-30 min at 0 degrees C when the concentration of MgCl2 was lowered to 2mM. 3. Activity was not restored when the concentration of MgCl2 was raised from 2mM to 10-30 mM at 0 degrees C. However, activity was recovered as measured by both assay systems when the ribosome fraction was heated to 37 degrees C at the higher concentrations of MgCl2. 4. Recovery of activity was noted during the course of the polyphenylalanine synthesis in 50 mM-KCl/5mM-MgCl2/25mM-Tris/HCl, pH 7.6, at 37 degrees C. Re-activation was slow at 20 degrees C and below. 5. No more than about 5% of the protein moiety of the subparticle was lost in 0.5M-NH4Cl on decreasing MgCl2 concentration from 10mM to 2mM. No proteins were detected in the supernatant fractions by gel electrophoresis after ribosomes were separated by differential centrifugation. The supernatant fraction was not essential for the recovery of activity. However, at higher (e.g. 1M) concentrations of NH4Cl, proteins were split from the subparticle. 6. The loss and regain of activity found on lowering and restoring the concentration of MgCl2 at 0.5M-NH4Cl appears to arise from a conformational change that does not seem to be associated with a loss and regain of particular proteins. 7. A 2% decrease in E260 was noticed when the concentration of Mg2+ was restored, and the change in the spectrum indicated a net increase of approx. 100A-U base-pairs per subribosomal particle. 8. When the concentration of Mg2+ was restored, S20,W of the subparticle remained at 52+/- 1S until the sample was incubated at 37 degrees C when S20,W increased to 56 +/- 1S compared with the value of 58 +/- 1S for the subparticle as originally isolated. (+info)
Reassembly of the peptidyltransferase centre of larger subparticles of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes from a core-particle and split-protein fraction.
We report the reconstruction, from a core-particle and split-protein fraction, of the larger subribosomal particle of rabbit reticulocytes. The reassembled particle was active in polyphenylalanine synthesis and in the puromycin reaction. The core-particles and split-protein fractions were obtained by treatment of the larger subparticle with salt solutions containing NH4+ and Mg2+ in the molar ratio 40:1 over the range 2.25-2.75 M-NH4Cl/56-69mM-MgCl2 at 0 degrees C. This treatment led to the loss of about eight proteins (approx. 17% of the protein moiety), which were found wholly or largely in the split-protein fraction as shown by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The core particle retained 5S rRNA and had much decreased (no more than 10% of control) ability to function in the puromycin reaction or in poly (U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis. Activity was recovered when the recombined core-particle and split-protein fractions were dialysed overnight at 4 degrees C against 0.3M-NH4Cl/15mM-MgCl2/1mM-dithiothreitol/15% (v/v) glycerol/20mM-Tris/HCl, pH 7.6, and then heated for 1 h at 37 degreesEES C. The recovery was 40-80% of the original activity. Raising the concentration of MgCL2 to 300 mM in 2.5 M-NH4CL led to the removal of seven rather than eight proteins, and the core particle remained active in the puromycin reaction. We infer that the protein retained by raising the concentration of Mg2+ is an essential component of the peptidyltransferase centre of the ribosome. (+info)
Endocytosis of heparin-binding protein (CAP37) is essential for the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production in human monocytes.
Heparin-binding protein (HBP), also known as CAP37, is a proteolytically inactive serine protease homologue that is released from activated granulocytes. However, HBP is not a biologically inactive molecule but rather a multifunctional protein with properties that include the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production from monocytes. We have previously demonstrated that HBP is internalized in monocytes. In the current study, we hypothesize that HBP is internalized in monocytes via endocytosis, and this internalization is an important mechanism by which HBP enhances LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Using whole blood from healthy donors and flow cytometry, we found that colchicine (0.1-10 mM), cytochalasin D (1000 microM), NH4Cl (10-50 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (0.1-3 microM) significantly reduced the affinity of FITC-HBP for CD14-positive monocytes. Using isolated human monocytes and ELISA, we found that colchicine (0.1 mM), cytochalasin D (30 and 300 microM), NH4Cl (30 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (1 microM) significantly reduced the effect of HBP (10 microg/ml) to enhance LPS (10 ng/ml)-induced TNF-alpha release after 24 h. These findings demonstrate that internalization of HBP in monocytes is essential for the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Transport of HBP to an activating compartment depends on intact F-actin polymerization and endosomal acidification, an important mechanism for endosomal protein sorting and trafficking. (+info)
MHC class I-restricted presentation of maleylated protein binding to scavenger receptors.
Pathways for loading exogenous protein-derived peptides on MHC class I are thought to be present mainly in monocyte-lineage cells and to involve phagocytosis- or macropinocytosis-mediated antigenic leakage into either cytosol or extracellular milieu to give peptide access to MHC class I. We show that maleylation of OVA enhanced its presentation to an OVA-specific MHC class I-restricted T cell line by both macrophages and B cells. This enhanced presentation involved uptake through receptors of scavenger receptor (SR)-like ligand specificity, was TAP-1-independent, and was inhibited by low levels (2 mM) of ammonium chloride. No peptide loading of bystander APCs by maleylated (maleyl) OVA-pulsed macrophages was detected. Demaleylated maleyl-OVA showed enhanced MHC class I-restricted presentation through receptor-mediated uptake and remained highly sensitive to 2 mM ammonium chloride. However, if receptor binding of maleyl-OVA was inhibited by maleylated BSA, the residual presentation was relatively resistant to 2 mM ammonium chloride. Maleyl-OVA directly introduced into the cytosol via osmotic lysis of pinosomes was poorly presented, confirming that receptor-mediated presentation of exogenous maleyl-OVA was unlikely to involve a cytosolic pathway. Demaleylated maleyl-OVA was well presented as a cytosolic Ag, consistent with the dependence of cytosolic processing on protein ubiquitination. Thus, receptor-specific delivery of exogenous protein Ags to APCs can result in enhanced MHC class I-restricted presentation, suggesting that the exogenous pathway of peptide loading for MHC class I may be a constitutive property dependent mainly on the quantity of Ag taken up by APCs. (+info)
Activation of the proteasomes of sand dollar eggs at fertilization depends on the intracellular pH rise.
The mechanism of the activation of intracellular proteasomes at fertilization was measured in living sand dollar eggs using the membrane-impermeant fluorogenic substrate, succinyl-Phe-Leu-Arg-coumarylamido-4-methanesulfonic acid. When the substrate was microinjected into unfertilized eggs, the initial velocity of hydrolysis of the substrate (V0) was low. V0 measured 5 to 10 min after fertilization was five to nine times the prefertilization level and remained high throughout the first cell cycle. Hydrolysis of the substrate was inhibited by clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone, a specific inhibitor of the proteasome. There has been in vitro evidence that calcium may be involved in regulation of proteasome activity to either inhibit the increase in peptidase activity associated with PA 28 binding to the 20S proteasome or stimulate activity of the PA 700-proteasome complex. Since both intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and intracellular pH (pHi) increase after fertilization, hydrolysis of the proteasome substrate was measured under conditions in which [Ca2+]i and pHi were varied independently during activation. When the pHi of unfertilized eggs was elevated by exposure to 15 mM ammonium chloride in pH 9 seawater, V0 increased to a level comparable to that measured after fertilization. In contrast, [Ca2+]i elevation without pHi change, induced by calcium ionophore in sodium-free seawater, had no effect on V0 in the unfertilized egg. Moreover, when unfertilized eggs were microinjected with buffers modulating pHi, V0 increased in a pH-dependent manner. These results indicate that the pHi rise at fertilization is the necessary prerequisite for activation of the proteasome, an essential component in the regulation of the cell cycle. (+info)
Regulation of thick ascending limb ion transporter abundance in response to altered acid/base intake.
Changes in ammonium excretion with acid/base perturbations are dependent on changes in medullary ammonium accumulation mediated by active NH4+ absorption by the medullary thick ascending limb. To investigate whether alterations in the abundance of medullary thick ascending limb ion transporters, namely the apical Na+/K+(NH4+)/2Cl- -cotransporter (BSC-1), the apical Na+/H+ -exchanger (NHE3), and the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit, may be responsible in part for altered medullary ammonium accumulation, semiquantitative immunoblotting studies were performed using homogenates from the inner stripe of the rat renal outer medulla. After 7 d of NH4Cl (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) loading (associated with increased medullary ammonium accumulation), neither BSC-1 nor Na+/K+ -ATPase protein expression was altered, but NHE3 protein abundance was significantly increased. On the other hand, both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase protein abundance was increased significantly in rats fed NaHCO3 (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) for 7 d. Rats fed a high-NaCl diet (7.7 mEq Na+/220 g body wt per d) for 5 d also showed marked increases in both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase expression. The expression level of NHE3 protein did not change with either NaHCO3 or high NaCl intake. None of these three transporters showed a significant difference in abundance between the groups fed equimolar (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d for 7 d) NaHCO3 or NaCl. It is concluded that outer medullary BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit protein abundance is increased by chronic Na+ loading but not by acid/base perturbations and that outer medullary NHE3 protein abundance is increased by chronic NH4Cl loading. (+info)