Effect of cyclosporine A on cytochrome P-450-mediated drug metabolism in the partially hepatectomized rat.
Despite its hepatotoxic potential, cyclosporine A (CsA) has been reported to positively influence compensatory liver growth. To probe the physiological consequences of CsA on the recovery of liver function, studies were initiated in the 2/3 partially hepatectomized (PHx) rat, taking the recovery of cytochromes P-450-dependent drug metabolism as primary outcome. CsA was administered at a dose of 3. 33 mg/kg/day for 10 days. Drug metabolism was evaluated by the recovery of 14CO2 after administration of isotopically labeled model drugs and by studying the expression of the P-450 transcripts involved in their biotransformation before and 24 to 96 h after PHx. Before PHx, neither the steady-state mRNA nor the in vivo disposition of caffeine (CYP1A2), erythromycin (CYP3A2 and 3A1), or aminopyrine (CYP2B1 and 2C11) were influenced by CsA. Studies 24 h after PHx revealed a 29 to 39% reduction in the elimination of [14C]aminopyrine and [14C]erythromycin, which was unaffected by CsA. Their metabolism at 48 to 96 h after PHx also remained unaffected by CsA. By contrast, postPHx, [14C]caffeine elimination decreased to a level closely proportional to the loss in liver mass. In addition, CsA accelerated the recovery and/or prevented the decrease of caffeine elimination 24 h after PHx but not at later time points, indicating an early, but unsustained, beneficial effect of CsA on the recovery of CYP1A2-mediated activities. These data show that at the critical time of greatest loss in liver mass, CsA has only a selective influence on the biotransformation of cytochrome P-450 protein-dependent activities and that its effect on the regeneration process does not translate into an overall accelerated recovery of the hepatic drug-metabolizing function. (+info)
L-365,260 inhibits in vitro acid secretion by interacting with a PKA pathway.
The aim of this study was to analyse the antisecretory mechanism of L-365,260 in vitro in isolated rabbit gastric glands. We showed that compound L-365,260, described as a non-peptide specific competitive CCK-B receptor antagonist, was able to dose-dependently inhibit [14C]-aminopyrine accumulation induced by histamine (10(-4) M), carbachol (5x10(-5) M), 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX) (5x10(-6) M) and forskolin (5x10(-7) M) with similar IC50 values respectively of 1.1+/-0.6x10(-7) M, 1.9+/-1.2x10(-7) M, 4.2+/-2.0x10(-7) M and 4.0+/-2.8x10(-7) M. We showed that L-365,260 acted beyond receptor activation and production of intracellular second messengers and that it had no action on the H+/K+ -ATPase. We found that L-365,260 inhibited cyclic AMP-induced [14C]-aminopyrine accumulation in digitonin-permeabilized rabbit gastric glands, suggesting that this compound acted, at least in part, as an inhibitor of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) pathway. (+info)
Demethylation capacity of human fetal adrenal mitochondrial cytochrome P-450 in vitro.
AIM: To explore the capacity and characteristics of adrenal mitochondria to metabolize xenobiotics in vitro in human fetus. METHODS: Subcellular fractions of fetal adrenal were prepared by differential centrifugation. Mitochondrial P-450 system was proved by spectral analyses and SDS-PAGE. The formaldehyde formation contents were measured with Nash reagent. RESULTS: The erythromycin N-demethylation linearly increased in the protein concentration (1-4 mg)- and incubation time (10-30 min)-dependent manners. A typical concentration-effect relationship appeared with erythromycin 0.067-1 mmol.L-1 and a positive correlation (r = 0.641, P < 0.05) existed between erythromycin N-demethylation and gestation months. The N-demethylation values (nmol.s-1/g protein) of erythromycin (2.7 +/- 0.8), benzfetamine (1.1 +/- 0.5), and aminophenazone (0.9 +/- 0.4) in mitochondria were 89% (P > 0.05), 162% (P < 0.01), and 62% (P < 0.01), respectively, of those in microsomes. There was correlation between mitochondria and microsomes in the N-demethylation of erythromycin (r = 0.708, P < 0.05) and benzfetamine (r = 0.707, P < 0.05). Troleandomycin stimulated erythromycin N-demethylation in adrenal mitochondria as well as in adrenal and liver microsomes in vitro. CONCLUSION: Fetal adrenal mitochondria, with multiple P-450 isoforms and greater capacity of demethylation, play a role in drug-metabolism during fetal development. (+info)
Expression of rab11a N124I in gastric parietal cells inhibits stimulatory recruitment of the H+-K+-ATPase.
Stimulation of the gastric parietal cell results in a massive redistribution of H+-K+-ATPase from cytoplasmic tubulovesicles to the apical plasma membrane. Previous studies have implicated the small GTPase rab11 in this process. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry, we confirmed that rab11 is associated with H+-K+-ATPase-enriched gastric microsomes. A stoichiometry of one rab11 per six copies of H+-K+-ATPase was estimated. Furthermore, rab11 exists in at least three forms on rabbit gastric microsomes: the two most prominent resemble rab11a, whereas the third resembles rab11b. Using an adenoviral expression system, we expressed the dominant negative mutant rab11a N124I in primary cultures of rabbit parietal cells under the control of the tetracycline transactivator protein (tTA). The mutant was well expressed with a distribution similar to that of the H+-K+-ATPase. Stimulation of these cultures with histamine and IBMX was assessed by measuring the aminopyrine (AP) uptake relative to resting cells (AP index). In experiments on six culture preparations, stimulated uninfected cells gave an AP index of 10.0 +/- 2.9, whereas parallel cultures expressing rab11a N124I were poorly responsive to stimulation, with a mean AP index of 3.2 +/- 0. 9. Control cultures expressing tTA alone or tTA plus actin responded equally well to stimulation, giving AP index values of 9.0 +/- 3.1 and 9.6 +/- 0.9, respectively. Thus inhibition by rab11a N124I is not simply due to adenoviral infection. The AP uptake data were confirmed by immunocytochemistry. In uninfected cells, H+-K+-ATPase demonstrated a broad cytoplasmic distribution, but it was cleared from the cytoplasm and associated with apically derived membranes on stimulation. In cells expressing rab11a N124I, H+-K+-ATPase maintained its resting localization on stimulation. Furthermore, this effect could be alleviated by culturing infected cells in the presence of tetracycline, which prevents expression of the mutant rab11. We therefore conclude that rab11a is the prominent GTPase associated with gastric microsomes and that it plays a role in parietal cell activation. (+info)
Responsiveness of beta-escin-permeabilized rabbit gastric gland model: effects of functional peptide fragments.
We established a beta-escin-permeabilized gland model with the use of rabbit isolated gastric glands. The glands retained an ability to secrete acid, monitored by [14C]aminopyrine accumulation, in response to cAMP, forskolin, and histamine. These responses were all inhibited by cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitory peptide. Myosin light-chain kinase inhibitory peptide also suppressed aminopyrine accumulation, whereas the inhibitory peptide of protein kinase C or that of calmodulin kinase II was without effect. Guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS) abolished cAMP-stimulated acid secretion concomitantly, interfering with the redistribution of H+-K+-ATPase from tubulovesicles to the apical membrane. To identify the targets of GTPgammaS, effects of peptide fragments of certain GTP-binding proteins were examined. Although none of the peptides related to Rab proteins showed any effect, the inhibitory peptide of Arf protein inhibited cAMP-stimulated secretion. These results demonstrate that our new model, the beta-escin-permeabilized gland, allows the introduction of relatively large molecules, e.g., peptides, into the cell, and will be quite useful for analyzing signal transduction of parietal cell function. (+info)
Regulation and function of p38 protein kinase in isolated canine gastric parietal cells.
We examined the regulation and functional role of p38 kinase in gastric acid secretion. p38 kinase was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates of highly purified gastric parietal cells in primary culture, and its activity was quantitated by in vitro kinase assay. Carbachol effects were dose- and time-dependent, with a maximal 10-fold stimulatory effect detected after 30 min of incubation. SB-203580, a highly selective inhibitor of p38 kinase, blocked carbachol induction of p38 kinase activity, with maximal inhibition at 10 microM. Stimulation by carbachol was unaffected by preincubation of parietal cells with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM, but incubation of cells in Ca(2+)-free medium led to a 50% inhibition of carbachol induction of p38 kinase activity. Because some of the effects of carbachol are mediated by the small GTP-binding protein Rho, we examined the role of Rho in carbachol induction of p38 kinase activity. We tested the effect of exoenzyme C3 from Clostridium botulinum (C3), a toxin known to ADP-ribosylate and specifically inactivate Rho. C3 led to complete ADP-ribosylation of Rho, and it inhibited carbachol induction of p38 kinase by 50%. We then tested the effect of SB-203580 and C3 on carbachol-stimulated uptake of [(14)C]aminopyrine (AP). Inhibition of p38 kinase by SB-203580 led to a dose-dependent increase in AP uptake induced by carbachol, with maximal (threefold) effect at 10 microM SB-203580. Similarly, preincubation of parietal cells with C3 led to a twofold increase in AP uptake induced by carbachol. Thus carbachol induces a cascade of events in parietal cells that results in activation of p38 kinase through signaling pathways that are at least in part dependent on Rho activation and on the presence of extracellular Ca(2+). p38 kinase appears to inhibit gastric acid secretion. (+info)
Tryptophan operon read-through. Isolation and characterization of an abnormally long tryptophan synthetase alpha subunit from a frame-shift mutant of Escherichia coli.
A new mutant strain of Escherichia coli, strain ICR-47, contains a frame-shift mutation in the trpA gene, the gene most distal to the operator in the trp operon. Mapping experiments indicate that the lesion is located at a site within 10 to 15% of the end of this gene. The mutation results in "out-of-phase" translation of the distal portion of the trp mRNA; normal translational termination signal(s) are not encountered and a trpA gene product longer than the wild type protein is produced. As with the other enzymes produced from this operon, the in vivo level of the altered protein (the alpha subunit of the tryptophan synthetase enzyme complex) is controlled by exogenous L-tryptophan. The altered alpha subunit from the strain ICR-47 has been isolated and characterized. Molecular weight estimations indicate a molecular weight of approximately 37,000, an increase beyond the wild type enzyme corresponding to an additional 50 to 70 amino acid residues. The protein has a new COOH-terminal amino acid sequence. Results of preliminary hybridization experiments suggest that the ICR-47 mRNA, which is necessarily longer than that needed to code for wild type enzyme, is not detectably different in size from wild type mRNA. The enzymatic properties of the ICR-47 alpha subunit indicates a greatly reduced ability of the mutant subunit to combine functionally with wild type beta2 subunit, the second protein component in the tryptophan synthetase enzyme complex. In contrast, only 40 to 50% of the intrinsic enzymatic activity of the alpha subunit is lost. (+info)
A proposed mechanism for the potentiation of cAMP-mediated acid secretion by carbachol.
Acid secretion in isolated rabbit gastric glands was monitored by the accumulation of [(14)C]aminopyrine. Stimulation of the glands with carbachol synergistically augmented the response to dibutyryl cAMP. The augmentation persisted even after carbachol was washed out and was resistant to chelated extracellular Ca(2+) and to inhibitors of either protein kinase C or calmodulin kinase II. Cytochalasin D at 10 microM preferentially blocked the secretory effect of carbachol and its synergism with cAMP, whereas it had no effect on histamine- or cAMP-stimulated acid secretion within 15 min. Cytochalasin D inhibited the carbachol-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increase due to release from the Ca(2+) store. Treatment of the glands with cytochalasin D redistributed type 3 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (the major subtype in the parietal cell) from the fraction containing membranes of large size to the microsomal fraction, suggesting a dissociation of the store from the plasma membrane. These findings suggest that intracellular Ca(2+) release by cholinergic stimulation is critical for determining synergism with cAMP in parietal cell activation and that functional coupling between the Ca(2+) store and the receptor is maintained by actin microfilaments. (+info)