(1/650) Three distinct anti-allergic drugs, amlexanox, cromolyn and tranilast, bind to S100A12 and S100A13 of the S100 protein family.
To investigate the roles of calcium-binding proteins in degranulation, we used three anti-allergic drugs, amlexanox, cromolyn and tranilast, which inhibit IgE-mediated degranulation of mast cells, as molecular probes in affinity chromatography. All of these drugs, which have different structures but similar function, scarcely bound to calmodulin in bovine lung extract, but bound to the same kinds of calcium-binding proteins, such as the 10-kDa proteins isolated in this study, calcyphosine and annexins I-V. The 10-kDa proteins obtained on three drug-coupled resins and on phenyl-Sepharose were analysed by reversed-phase HPLC. It was found that two characteristic 10-kDa proteins, one polar and one less polar, were bound with all three drugs, although S100A2 (S100L), of the S100 family, was bound with phenyl-Sepharose. The cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence proved our major polar protein to be identical with the calcium-binding protein in bovine amniotic fluid (CAAF1, S100A12). The cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of the less-polar protein shared 95% homology with human and mouse S100A13. In addition, it was demonstrated that the native S100A12 and recombinant S100A12 and S100A13 bind to immobilized amlexanox. On the basis of these findings, we speculate that the three anti-allergic drugs might inhibit degranulation by binding with S100A12 and S100A13. (+info)
(2/650) Differential discrimination of G-protein coupling of serotonin(1A) receptors from bovine hippocampus by an agonist and an antagonist.
We have studied the effect of guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-gamma-S), a non-hydrolyzable analogue of GTP, on agonist and antagonist binding to bovine hippocampal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1A) receptor in native membranes. Our results show that the specific binding of the agonist is inhibited with increasing concentrations of GTP-gamma-S along with a reduction in binding affinity. In sharp contrast to this, antagonist binding to 5-HT(1A) receptor shows no significant reduction and remains invariant over a large range of GTP-gamma-S concentrations. The binding affinity of the antagonist also remains unaltered. This shows that the agonist and the antagonist differentially discriminate G-protein coupling of 5-HT(1A) receptors from bovine hippocampus. (+info)
(3/650) Receptor density as a factor governing the efficacy of the dopamine D4 receptor ligands, L-745,870 and U-101958 at human recombinant D4.4 receptors expressed in CHO cells.
1. The relationships between the density of dopamine D4.4 receptors and the agonist efficacies of L-745,870 (3-(4-[4-chlorophhenyl]piperazin-1-yl)-methyl-1H-pyrrolo [2, 3-b]pyridine) and U-101958 ((1-benzyl-piperidin-4-yl)-(3-isopropoxy-pyridin-2-yl)-methyl-a min e) were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, after treatment with the gene expression enhancer, sodium butyrate. 2. In CHO cells expressing D4.4 receptors (CHO/D4 cells), dopamine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation (Emax 56+/-1% inhibition, pEC50 7.4+/-0.1, n=10). U-101958 behaved as a partial agonist (39+/-7% the efficacy of dopamine, pEC50 8.1+/-0.3, n=4), whereas L-745,870 had no detectable agonist effect. 3. Receptor density, as estimated by [3H]-spiperone saturation binding was 240+/-30 fmol mg-1 protein (n=8) in CHO/D4 cell homogenates. It reached 560+/-150 (n=6), 1000+/-190 (n=4) and 840+/-120 (n=4) fmol mg-1 protein after treatment with sodium butyrate (5 mM) for 6, 18 and 48 h, respectively. 4. The increase in receptor density was associated with a gradual enhancement of the agonist effects (increased Emax and pEC50 values) of dopamine. The efficacy of U-101958 (relative to dopamine) doubled and L-745,870 was turned into a partial agonist (efficacy 49% relative to dopamine, pEC50 8. 6+/-0.2, n=6, after 48 h treatment with sodium butyrate). These agonist effects of U-101958 and L-745,870 could be antagonized by spiperone (0.1 microM) but not by raclopride (10 microM). 5. The results show that U-101958 and L-745,870 are partial agonists at human dopamine D4.4 receptors expressed in CHO cells. Their efficacy is governed by receptor density. Agonist effects of these two compounds in vivo cannot be excluded under circumstances of increased receptor levels. (+info)
(4/650) Design and characterization of orally active Arg-Gly-Asp peptidomimetic vitronectin receptor antagonist SB 265123 for prevention of bone loss in osteoporosis.
The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-binding integrin alpha(V)beta(3) is highly expressed on osteoclasts and has been proposed to mediate cell-matrix adhesion required for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Antagonism of this receptor should prevent stable osteoclast adhesion and thereby inhibit bone resorption. We have generated an orally bioavailable, nonpeptide RGD mimetic alpha(v)beta(3) antagonist, SB 265123, which prevents bone loss in vivo when dosed by oral administration. SB 265123 binds alpha(v)beta(3) and the closely related integrin alpha(v)beta(5) with high affinity (K(i) = 3.5 and 1.3 nM, respectively), but binds only weakly to the related RGD-binding integrins alpha(IIb)beta(3) (K(i) >1 microM) and alpha(5)beta(1) (K(i) >1 microM). The compound inhibits alpha(v)beta(3)-mediated cell adhesion with an IC(50) = 60 nM and more importantly, inhibits human osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in vitro with an IC(50) = 48 nM. In vivo, SB 265123 completely blocks bone resorption in a thyroparathyroidectomized rat model of acute bone resorption when dosed at 2.5 mg/kg/h by continuous i.v. infusion. When dosed orally with 3 to 30 mg/kg b.i.d. , in the ovariectomy-induced rat model of osteoporosis, SB 265123 prevents bone resorption in a dose-dependent fashion. This is the first report of an orally active alpha(v)beta(3) antagonist that is effective at inhibiting bone resorption when dosed in a pharmaceutically acceptable fashion. Such a molecule may provide a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. (+info)
(5/650) Preclinical pharmacokinetics and interspecies scaling of a novel vitronectin receptor antagonist.
Allometric scaling may be used in drug development to predict the pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics in humans from animal data. Although allometry may be successful for compounds that are excreted unchanged or that are oxidatively metabolized (with corrections for metabolic capacity), it has been more challenging for compounds excreted primarily as conjugates in bile. (S)-10, 11-Dihydro-3-[3-(pyridin-2-ylamino)-1-propyloxy]-5H-dibenzo[ a, d]cycloheptene-10-acetic acid (SB-265123) is a novel alphavbeta3 ("vitronectin receptor") antagonist. In this study, the in vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro plasma protein binding of SB-265123 were examined in four species: mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys. In monkeys and dogs, SB-265123 exhibited moderate clearance, whereas low clearance (<20% hepatic blood flow) was observed in the rat, and high clearance (>70% hepatic blood flow) was seen in the mouse. The concentration-time profiles indicated the possibility of enterohepatic recirculation; subsequent studies in bile duct-cannulated rats demonstrated extensive biliary excretion of an acyl-glucuronide of SB-265123. In allometric scaling to predict the disposition of SB-265123 in humans, various standard correction factors were applied, including protein binding, maximum lifespan potential, and brain weight; each failed to produce adequate interspecies scaling of clearance (r(2) < 0.72). Consequently, a novel correction factor incorporating bile flow and microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in each species was applied, demonstrating substantial improvement in the correlation of the allometric plot (r(2) = 0.96). This study demonstrates a novel allometric correction that may be applicable to compounds that undergo conjugation and biliary excretion. (+info)
(6/650) Specific inhibition of the eubacterial DNA ligase by arylamino compounds.
All known DNA ligases catalyze the formation of a phosphodiester linkage between adjacent termini in double-stranded DNA via very similar mechanisms. The ligase family can, however, be divided into two classes: eubacterial ligases, which require NAD(+) as a cofactor, and other ligases, from viruses, archaea, and eukaryotes, which use ATP. Drugs that discriminate between DNA ligases from different sources may have antieubacterial activity. We now report that a group of arylamino compounds, including some commonly used antimalarial and anti-inflammatory drugs and a novel series of bisquinoline compounds, are specific inhibitors of eubacterial DNA ligases. Members of this group of inhibitors have different heterocyclic ring systems with a common amino side chain in which the two nitrogens are separated by four carbon atoms. The potency, but not the specificity of action, is influenced by the DNA-binding characteristics of the inhibitor, and the inhibition is noncompetitive with respect to NAD(+). The arylamino compounds appear to target eubacterial DNA ligase in vivo, since a Salmonella Lig(-) strain that has been rescued with the ATP-dependent T4 DNA ligase is less sensitive than the parental Salmonella strain. (+info)
(7/650) Reduction of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1A)-mediated temperature and neuroendocrine responses and 5-HT(1A) binding sites in 5-HT transporter knockout mice.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether alterations in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1A) receptors would be found in knockout mice lacking the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). Hypothermic and neuroendocrine responses to the 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetraline (8-OH-DPAT) were used to examine the function of 5-HT(1A) receptors. Initial studies evaluated the dose-response and time course of 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia and hormone secretion in normal CD-1 mice (the background strain of the 5-HTT knockout mice). 8-OH-DPAT dose-dependently produced hypothermic responses that peaked at 20 min postinjection. 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia was blocked by the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY-100635. 8-OH-DPAT dose-dependently increased the concentrations of plasma oxytocin, corticotropin, and corticosterone. In the 5-HTT knockout (-/-) mice, the hypothermic response to 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) was completely abolished. Furthermore, 5-HTT-/- mice had significantly attenuated plasma oxytocin and corticosterone responses to 8-OH-DPAT. No significant changes in the hypothermic or hormonal responses to 8-OH-DPAT were observed in heterozygous (5-HTT+/-) mice. [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT- and [(125)I]MPPI [4-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-[N-(2"-pyridinyl)-iodobenzamido]ethyl] pip erazine]-binding sites in the hypothalamus and [(125)I]MPPI-binding sites in the dorsal raphe were significantly decreased in 5-HTT-/- mice. The results indicate that lack of the 5-HTT is associated with a functional desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor responses to 8-OH-DPAT, which may be a consequence, at least in part, of the decrease in density of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the hypothalamus and dorsal raphe of 5-HTT-/- mice. (+info)
(8/650) Evidence that somatostatin sst2 receptors mediate striatal dopamine release.
1 Somatostatin (SRIF) is a cyclic tetradecapeptide present in medium-sized aspiny interneurones in the rat striatum. We have previously shown that exogenous SRIF potently stimulates striatal dopamine (DA) release via a glutamate-dependent mechanism. We now report the ability of the selective sst2 receptor agonist, BIM-23027, to mimic this effect of SRIF. 2 In vivo microdialysis studies were performed in anaesthetized male Wistar rats. In most experiments, compounds were administered by retrodialysis into the striatum for 15 min periods, 90 min and 225 min after sampling commenced, with levels of neurotransmitters being measured by HPLC with electrochemical and fluorescence detection. 3 BIM-23027 (50 and 100 nM) stimulated DA release with extracellular levels increasing by up to 18 fold. 4 Prior retrodialysis of BIM-23027 (50 nM) abolished the effects of subsequent administration of SRIF (100 nM). 5 The agonist effects of both BIM-23027 and SRIF were abolished by the selective sst2 receptor antagonist, L-Tyr8-CYN-154806 (100 nM). 6 The AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, DNQX (100 microM), abolished the agonist effects of BIM-23027 as previously shown for SRIF. 7 This study provides evidence that the sst2 receptor mediates the potent dopamine-releasing actions observed with SRIF in the rat striatum. Dopamine release evoked by both peptides appears to be mediated indirectly via a glutamatergic pathway. Other subtype-specific somatostatin receptor ligands were unable to elicit any effects and therefore we conclude that no other somatostatin receptor types are involved in mediating the dopamine-releasing actions of SRIF in the striatum. (+info)