(1/636) Improvement of systemic 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy in vivo using light fractionation with a 75-minute interval.
We have studied different single and fractionated illumination schemes after systemic administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to Improve the response of nodular tumors to ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy. Tumors transplanted on the thigh of female WAG/Rij rats were transdermally illuminated with red light (633 nm) after systemic ALA administration (200 mg/kg). The effectiveness of each treatment scheme was determined from the tumor volume doubling time. A single illumination (100 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2, 2.5 h after ALA administration) yielded a doubling time of 6.6+/-1.2 days. This was significantly different from the untreated control (doubling time, 1.7+/-0.1 days). The only treatment scheme that yielded a significant improvement compared to all other schemes studied was illumination at both 1 and 2.5 h after ALA administration (both 100 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2) and resulted in a tumor volume doubling time of 18.9+/-2.9 days. A possible mechanism to explain this phenomenon is that the protoporphyrin IX formed after administration of ALA is photodegraded by the first illumination. In the 75-min interval, new porphyrin is formed enhancing the effect of the second illumination. (+info)
(2/636) Timing of illumination is essential for effective and safe photodynamic therapy: a study in the normal rat oesophagus.
5-Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an experimental treatment modality for (pre)malignant oesophageal lesions. This study aimed to optimize the time of illumination after ALA administration. Six groups of eight rats received 200 mg kg(-1) ALA orally, eight rats served as controls. Illumination was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 or 12 h after ALA administration with a 1-cm cylindrical diffuser placed in a balloon catheter (laser parameters: 633 nm, 25 J radiant energy, power output 100 mW). During illumination, fluorescence measurements and light dosimetry were performed. Animals were sacrificed at 48 h (n = 4) or 28 days (n = 4) after PDT. At day 28, an oesophagogram was performed. Largest PpIX fluorescence was found at 3 h after ALA administration. In vivo fluence rate was three times higher than the calculated incident fluence rate. At 48 h after PDT, major epithelial damage was found in all animals illuminated at 2 h, whereas less epithelial damage was found at 3-6 h and none at 1 and 12 h. In animals illuminated at 4, 6 and 12 h, but not at 2 h, oesophagograms showed severe dilatations and histology showed loss of Schwann cells. These results demonstrate that the choice of time interval between ALA administration and illumination is critical for achieving epithelial damage without oesophageal functional impairment. A short interval of 2-3 h seems to be most appropriate. (+info)
(3/636) Clinical spectral characterisation of colonic mucosal lesions using autofluorescence and delta aminolevulinic acid sensitisation.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) from colonic mucosa was measured in vivo with and without delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in an attempt to differentiate between neoplasia and non-neoplasia in real time during colonoscopy. METHODS: Spectra from 32 adenomas, 68 normal sites, and 14 hyperplastic polyps in 41 patients were obtained with a point monitoring system. Twenty one of the patients had been given a low dose of ALA as a photosensitiser before the examination. Light of 337, 405, or 436 nm wavelength was used as excitation. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: With 337 nm excitation, 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity was obtained between normal mucosa and adenomas. Seventy seven per cent of the hyperplastic polyps were classified as non-neoplastic. When exciting with 405 and 436 nm, the possibility of distinguishing different types of tissue was considerably better in the ALA patients than in the non-ALA patients. CONCLUSIONS: The in vivo point measurements imply that a good discrimination between normal tissue and adenomatous polyps can be obtained using the LIF technique. Excitation at 337 nm and at 405 nm or 436 nm using ALA gives good results. LIF also shows potential for distinguishing adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps. The number of detection wavelengths could be reduced if chosen properly. (+info)
(4/636) Ultrastructural changes in PAM cells after photodynamic treatment with delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins or photosan.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the combination of a photosensitizing drug (Ps) with light in the presence of oxygen leading to the generation of reactive molecular species and destruction of cancer cells. In this study we compared PDT with two Ps, the hematoporphyrin derivative Photosan (Ph) and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced endogenous protoporphyrin IX, with respect to mitochondrial function and ultrastructural alterations. The effects of PDT were investigated in PAM 212 cells after different Ps incubation times, light doses, and post-treatment periods. Both Ps induced a light dose-dependent impairment of the mitochondrial function with the dose-response curve being steep for ALA and flat for Ph. The prolongation of the incubation time from 4 to 20 h resulted in an increased reduction of mitochondrial activity after ALA PDT but not after Ph PDT. Treatment with an irradiation dose that decreased mitochondrial activity by 50% (IC50) led to early and profound changes of mitochondrial morphology in ALA photosensitized cells, whereas photosensitization with Ph resulted in more pronounced alterations of lysosomes. We conclude that at bioequivalent sublethal PDT exposures of PAM 212 cells, ALA-induced damage is primarily restricted to mitochondria, whereas Ph-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by damage of the lysosomal system. (+info)
(5/636) Role of heme in intracellular trafficking of thyroperoxidase and involvement of H2O2 generated at the apical surface of thyroid cells in autocatalytic covalent heme binding.
Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is a glycosylated hemoprotein that plays a key role in thyroid hormone synthesis. We previously showed that in CHO cells expressing human TPO (hTPO) only 2% of synthesized hTPO reaches the cell surface. Herein, we investigated the role of heme moiety insertion in the exit of hTPO from the endoplasmic reticulum. Peroxidase activity at the cell surface and cell surface expression of hTPO were decreased by approximately 30 and approximately 80%, respectively, with succinyl acetone, an inhibitor of heme biosynthesis, and were increased by 20% with holotransferrin and aminolevulinic acid, precursors of heme biosynthesis. Results were similar with holotransferrin plus aminolevulinic acid or hemin, but hemin increased cell surface activity more efficiently (+120%) relative to the control. It had been suggested (DePillis, G., Ozaki, S., Kuo, J. M., Maltby, D. A., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8857-8960) that covalent attachment of heme to mammalian peroxidases could be an H2O2-dependent autocatalytic processing. In our study, heme associated intracellularly with hTPO, and we hypothesized that there was insufficient exposure to H2O2 in Chinese hamster ovary cells before hTPO reached the cell surface. After a 10-min incubation, 10 microM H2O2 led to a 65% increase in cell surface activity. In contrast, in thyroid cells, H2O2 was synthesized at the apical cell surface and allowed covalent attachment of heme. Two-day incubation of primocultures of thyroid cells with catalase led to a 30% decrease in TPO activity at the cell surface. In conclusion, we provide compelling evidence for an essential role of 1) heme incorporation in the intracellular trafficking of hTPO and of 2) H2O2 generated at the apical pole of thyroid cells in the autocatalytic covalent heme binding to the TPO molecule. (+info)
(6/636) Hypoxia significantly reduces aminolaevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX synthesis in EMT6 cells.
We have studied the effects of hypoxia on aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesis in EMT6 monolayer cultures characterized by different cell densities and proliferation rates. Specifically, after ALA incubation under hypoxic or normoxic conditions, we detected spectrofluorometrically the PpIX content of the following populations: (a) low-density exponentially growing cells; (b) high-density fed-plateau cells; and (c) high-density unfed-plateau cells. These populations were selected either for the purpose of comparison with other in vitro studies (low-density exponentially growing cells) or as representatives of tumour regions adjacent to (high-density fed-plateau cells) and further away from (high-density unfed-plateau cells) capillaries. The amount of PpIX per cell produced by each one of these populations was higher after normoxic ALA incubation. The magnitude of the effect of hypoxia on PpIX synthesis was dependent on cell density and proliferation rate. A 42-fold decrease in PpIX fluorescence was observed for the high-density unfed-plateau cells. PpIX production by the low-density exponential cells was affected the least by ALA incubation under hypoxic conditions (1.4-fold decrease), whereas the effect on the high-density fed-plateau population was intermediate (20-fold decrease). (+info)
(7/636) Optimum porphyrin accumulation in epithelial skin tumours and psoriatic lesions after topical application of delta-aminolaevulinic acid.
Photodynamic therapy with topically applied delta-aminolaevulinic acid is used to treat skin tumours by employing endogenously formed porphyrins as photosensitizers. This study examines the time course of porphyrin metabolite formation after topical application of delta-aminolaevulinic acid. Porphyrin biosynthesis in human skin tumours (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma), in psoriatic lesions, and in normal skin was investigated. Skin areas were treated with delta-aminolaevulinic acid, and levels of total porphyrins, porphyrin metabolites and proteins were measured in samples excised after 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h. There was an increase in porphyrin biosynthesis in all tissues with maximum porphyrin levels in tumours between 2 and 6 h and in psoriatic lesions 6 h after treatment. The pattern of porphyrins showed no significant difference between normal and neoplastic skin, protoporphyrin being the predominant metabolite. The results suggest that optimum irradiation time for superficial epithelial skin tumours may be as soon as 2 h after application of delta-aminolaevulinic acid, whereas for treatment of psoriatic lesions an application time of 6 h is more suitable. (+info)
(8/636) The iron regulatory protein can determine the effectiveness of 5-aminolevulinic acid in inducing protoporphyrin IX in human primary skin fibroblasts.
The level of endogenous photosensitiser, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), can be enhanced in the cells by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). We investigated the effect of critical parameters such as growth state of the cells and availability of intracellular iron in modulating the level of PPIX, in human primary cultured skin fibroblasts (FEK4) maintained either in exponentially growing or growth-arrested phase, following treatment with ALA. The addition of ALA to exponentially growing cells increased the level of PPIX 6-fold relative to control cells; however, in growth-arrested cells the same treatment increased the level of PPIX up to 34-fold. The simultaneous addition of the hydrophilic iron-chelator Desferal with ALA, boosted the level of PPIX up to 47-fold in growing cells and up to 42-fold in growth-arrested cells, suggesting that iron is limiting under the latter conditions. The strict dependence of PPIX enhancement on free available iron levels was examined by the level of activation of iron regulatory protein in band shift assays. This analysis revealed that the basal level of iron regulatory protein in growth-arrested cells was 6-fold higher than in growing cells, reflecting the influence of the free available iron pool in exponentially growing cells. Interestingly, the same ratio was found between the basal level concentration of PPIX in growing and growth-arrested cells. We propose that iron regulatory protein activation could serve as a marker for developing photodynamic therapy protocols because it identifies cells and tissues with a propensity to accumulate PPIX and it is therefore likely to predict the effectiveness of such therapies. (+info)