Structure of triphosphonoglycosphingolipid containing N-acetylgalactosamine 6-O-2-aminoethylphosphonate in the nervous system of Aplysia kurodai.
A phosphonoglycosphingolipid, named F-21, was found in the nervous system of Aplysia kurodai by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (Abe, S., Araki, S., and Satake, M. (1986) Biomed. Res. (Tokyo) 7, 47-51). F-21 was isolated from the nervous tissue of Aplysia in this study, and its chemical structure was characterized as follows, where 2-AEP is 2-aminoethylphosphonate. (Formula; see text) The major aliphatic components of the ceramide portion were palmitic acid (75%), stearic acid (22%), octadeca-4-sphingenine (43%), and anteisononadeca-4-sphingenine (54%). Some information on the steric interactions in the sugar moiety was obtained by NMR spectroscopy. The ring protons of the internal galactose, H1, H3, and H4 and the H3 of the side chain galactose were shifted, as compared to the corresponding protons of dephosphonylated F-21. This may indicate the interactions between the 2-AEP residue of N-acetylgalactosamine and the internal galactose and between the N-acetyl group of N-acetylgalactosamine and the side chain galactose, implying a sterically restricted and unique structure that may relate to some biological functions of F-21. (+info)
Genetic and biochemical characterization of a pathway for the degradation of 2-aminoethylphosphonate in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021.
Occurrence of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid in feeds, ruminal bacteria and duodenal digesta from defaunated sheep.
A quantitative method of analysis for 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (AEP) was developed using reverse-phase HPLC. The detection limit for AEP was 15 nM, and the detector response (peak area) was linear from AEP levels up to 100 microM (R = .99). Mean recovery of AEP added to strained ruminal fluid from faunated sheep was 98.2%. When AEP was added to a fermentation mixture at a concentration of 22.6 micrograms/ml, 78% disappeared during a 24-h incubation. 2-Aminoethylphosphonic acid was readily detected in preparations of mixed ruminal ciliate protozoa as well as in mixed and pure strains of ruminal bacteria, feedstuffs, and ruminal fluid and duodenal digesta from defaunated sheep. The occurrence of AEP in feed and bacterial hydrolysates was confirmed by organic phosphorus analyses. The concentration of AEP in mixed ruminal protozoa was three times greater than its concentration in mixed ruminal bacteria (4,304 vs 1,383 micrograms/g DM, respectively). The AEP values for pure ruminal bacterial cultures ranged from 733 micrograms/g DM in Bacteroides succinogenes B21a to 1,166 micrograms/g DM in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c. Ruminal fluid and duodenal digesta from defaunated sheep contained AEP concentrations of 30 micrograms/ml and 90 micrograms/g DM, respectively. The concentration of AEP in feedstuffs ranged from 25 micrograms/g DM in wheat straw to 263 micrograms/g DM in oats. Because AEP occurrence is not limited to ruminal ciliate protozoa, it is of little value as a marker for protozoal presence in or passage out of the rumen. (+info)
Application of the synthetic method to other amines.
Taurine and 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid were synthesized by the method of the main paper [Geoghegan & Dixon (1989) Biochem. J. 260, 295-296], i.e. by treating the corresponding halo compound with 2-aminoethanol and then with periodate. (+info)
A procedure for detecting phosphonolipids on thin-layer chromatograms.
A simple modification of a phospholipid-specific spray for thin-layer chromatograms allows it to be used as a specific detection reagent for phosphonolipids and as a general lipid detection reagent. (+info)
Phosphonate utilization by bacteria.
Bacteria able to use at least one of 13 ionic alkylphosphonates of O-alkyl or O,O-dialkyl alkylphosphonates as phosphorus sources were isolated from sewage and soil. Four of these isolates used 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (AEP) as a sole carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus source. None of the other phosphonates served as a carbon source for the organisms. One isolate, identified as Pseudomonas putida, grew with AEP as its sole carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus source and released nearly all of the organic phosphorus as orthophosphate and 72% of the AEP nitrogen as ammonium. This is the first demonstration of utilization of a phosphonoalkyl moiety as a sole carbon source. Cell-free extracts of P. putida contained an inducible enzyme system that required pyruvate and pyridoxal phosphate to release orthophosphate from AEP; acetaldehyde was tentatively identified as a second product. Phosphite inhibited the enzyme system. (+info)