Multidrug resistance protein 1 regulates lipid asymmetry in erythrocyte membranes. (9/206)

The role of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) in the maintenance of transbilayer lipid asymmetry in the erythrocyte membrane was investigated. The transbilayer distribution of endogenous phospholipids and [(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl (NBD)-labelled lipid analogues was compared in the absence and the presence of inhibitors of MRP1. At equilibrium the transbilayer distribution of the NBD analogues (in the absence of MRP1 inhibitors) was very similar to that of the endogenous lipids. Inhibition of MRP1 by verapamil or indomethacin resulted in a shift in the amount of probe that was internalized: approx. 50% of NBD-labelled phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and 9% of NBD-sphingomyelin (NBD-Spm) were no longer extractable by BSA in cells treated with inhibitor, in comparison with 25% and 3% for control cells respectively. To verify whether inhibition of MRP1 also affected the distribution of the endogenous phospholipids, phospholipase A2 and sphingomyelinase were used to assess the amount of each of the various lipid classes present in the membrane outer leaflet. No shift in phospholipid distribution was observed after 5 h of incubation with verapamil or indomethacin. However, after 48 h of incubation with these inhibitors, significantly smaller amounts of PtdCho and Spm were present in the outer membrane leaflet. No appreciable change was observed in the distribution of phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylserine. Decreased hydrolysis of PtdCho and Spm was not due to endovesicle formation, as revealed by electron microscopy. This is the first report to show that MRP1 has a role in the maintenance of the outwards orientation of endogenous choline-containing phospholipids in the erythrocyte membrane.  (+info)

A study of the interaction between Helicobacter pylori and components of the human fibrinolytic system. (10/206)

The interaction of plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase with a clinical strain of Helicobacter pylori was studied. Plasminogen bound to the surface of H. pylori cells in a concentration-dependent manner and could be activated to the enzymatic form, plasmin, by t-PA. Affinity chromatography assays revealed a plasminogen-binding protein of 58.9 kDa in water extracts of surface proteins. Surface-associated plasmin activity, detected with the chromogenic substrate CBS 00.65, was observed only when plasminogen and an exogenous activator were added to the cell suspension. The two physiologic plasminogen activators, t-PA and urokinase, were also shown to bind to and remain active on the surface of bacterial cells. epsilon-Aminocaproic acid caused partial inhibition of t-PA binding, suggesting that the kringle 2 structure of this activator is involved in the interaction with surface receptors. The activation of plasminogen by t-PA, but not urokinase, strongly depended on the presence of cells and a 25-fold enhancer effect on the initial velocity of activation by t-PA compared to urokinase was established. Furthermore, a relationship between cell concentration and the initial velocity of activation was demonstrated. These findings support the concept that plasminogen activation by t-PA on the bacterial surface is a surface-dependent reaction which offers catalytic advantages.  (+info)

Hyperglycemic effect of amino compounds structurally related to caproate in rats. (11/206)

The chronic feeding of small amounts (0.3-3% of diet weight) of certain amino derivatives of caproate resulted in hyperglycemia, an elevated glucose tolerance curve and, occasionally, glucosuria. Effective compounds included norleucine, norvaline, glutamate, epsilon-aminocaproate, methionine, and leucine.  (+info)

The importance of the preactivation peptide in the two-stage mechanism of human plasminogen activation. (12/206)

The two stages in the activation of human plasminogen by urokinase have been examined kinetically in order to evaluate the significance of each stage in the activation process. The cleavage of the preactivation peptide from the NH2 terminus of native plasminogen (NH2-terminal glutamic acid) is clearly catalyzed by urokinase and is the rate-limiting first step in activation (Stage 1); this reaction is 20-fold slower than the conversion of the intermediate plasminogen (NH2-terminal lysine) to plasmin (Stage 2). Both lysine and its analogoue, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, exert two effects on the activation of native plasminogen. At low concentrations of these agents, activation is greatly accelerated. Analysis of activation in the presence and absence of these agents by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis indicates that the activation pathway is the same in both cases with the formation of a transient intermediate plasminogen; only the kinetics of proteolysis are altered. This enhancement in the rate of activation results solely from acceleration of the Stage 1 reaction; Stage 2 is essentially unaffected at low concentrations. Stage 1 is maximally enhanced (75-fold) at either 0.0025 M epsilon-aminocaproic acid or 0.025 M lysine and occurs 4 times more rapidly than Stage 2, which becomes the rate-limiting step at these concentrations. Plasmin also cleaves the preactivation peptide from native plasminogen and this reaction rate is enhanced by the same concentrations of lysine and epsilon-aminocaproic acid. These data suggest that lysine and epsilon-aminocaproic acid, which are known to bind to plasminogen and significantly alter its conformation, may thereby enhance preactivation peptide cleavage and consequently, plasminogen activation. At high concentrations, both Stages 1 and 2 are similarly inhibited by these agents, which suggests that this effect may be exerted by the direct inhibition of urokinase. The relative rates of preactivation peptide cleavage by the enzymes urokinase, plasmin, thrombin, and ancrod were also determined. Urokinase is 10 times more effective than plasmin in catalyzing this reaction and 1.8 X 10(4) times more effective than thrombin, while ancrod does not exert an effect. No plasmin is formed by either thrombin or ancrod.  (+info)

Binding of antigen by immunocytes. II. Effect of specific Ig on antigen binding by MOPC 315 cells. (13/206)

The effect of specific immunoglobulin (Ig) on specific binding of antigen to cells has been studied in a model system consisting of nurine myeloma cells (MOPC 315), MOPC 315 serum, and DNP conjugates. MOPC 315 serum, which has IgA specific for DNP, specifically inhibited the binding of DNP conjugates to these cells. Using this model it was found that cells have a marked advantage over free specific Ig in binding multivalent antigen molecules and retaining them in a bound state. Cells were able to specifically bind multivalent antigen in the presence of a large excess of free specific Igm the kinetics of antigen binding to cells was slow, and prolongation of time of incubation increased the amount of specific binding. Both antihapten and anticarrier Ig augmented nonspecific binding of multivalent but not of univalent hapten to control cells. Furthermore, antihapten Ig at low concentration increased antigen binding to specific cells.  (+info)

Aminocaproic acid and menstrual loss in women using intrauterine devices. (14/206)

A controlled study of the effect of aminocaproic acid 3 g six-hourly taken by mouth during menstruation was carried out on 56 women for eight months from the time of insertion of a Lippes D intrauterine device (IUD). Thirty-five women presenting with menorrhagia in association with an IUD were also treated during three out of six consecutive menses. A highly significant reduction in menstrual loss was observed during treatment in both groups.  (+info)

Intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A cooperative study. Antifibrinolytic therapy in recent onset subarachnoid hemorrhage. (15/206)

In this cooperative study among 13 institutions, 502 patients were treated with antifibrinolytic medication (epsilon-aminocaproic acid or tranexamic acid) within a 14-day period following rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. Mortality at the end of 14 days was 11.6%; proved rebleed rate was 12.7%. Patients with an internal carotid or anterior cerebral aneurysm had the highest mortality and rebleed rate. Most rebleeds occurred between the sixth and eleventh days following the initial bleed. Significantly higher mortality was reported among patients with cerebral vasospasm, yet rebleed rate was no different among those patients with or without vasospasm. The same pattern was observed among patients with a mean blood pressure value above and below 110 mm Hg. We conclude that antifibrinolytic therapy provides beneficial treatment to patients with recent onset subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) following rupture of an intracranial aneurysm.  (+info)

The blockage of the high-affinity lysine binding sites of plasminogen by EACA significantly inhibits prourokinase-induced plasminogen activation. (16/206)

Prourokinase-induced plasminogen activation is complex and involves three distinct reactions: (1) plasminogen activation by the intrinsic activity of prourokinase; (2) prourokinase activation by plasmin; (3) plasminogen activation by urokinase. To further understand some of the mechanisms involved, the effects of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA), a lysine analogue, on these reactions were studied. At a low range of concentrations (10-50 microM), EACA significantly inhibited prourokinase-induced (Glu-/Lys-) plasminogen activation, prourokinase activation by Lys-plasmin, and (Glu-/Lys-) plasminogen activation by urokinase. However, no inhibition of plasminogen activation by Ala158-prourokinase (a plasmin-resistant mutant) occurred. Therefore, the overall inhibition of EACA on prourokinase-induced plasminogen activation was mainly due to inhibition of reactions 2 and 3, by blocking the high-affinity lysine binding interaction between plasmin and prourokinase, as well as between plasminogen and urokinase. These findings were consistent with kinetic studies which suggested that binding of kringle 1-4 of plasmin to the N-terminal region of prourokinase significantly promotes prourokinase activation, and that binding of kringle 1-4 of plasminogen to the C-terminal lysine158 of urokinase significantly promotes plasminogen activation. In conclusion, EACA was found to inhibit, rather than promote, prourokinase-induced plasminogen activation due to its blocking of the high-affinity lysine binding sites on plasmin(ogen).  (+info)