Reactions of pyrzdoxal 5'-phosphate, 6-aminocaproic acid, cysteine, and penicilamine. Models for reactions of Schiff base linkages in pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-requiring enymes. (73/206)

Schiff base formation, transaldimination, and reaction with aminothiols are important reactions which occur on the surface of pyridoxal-P-requiring enzymes. As a first step in assessing the role of the protein in these reactions, models for these reactions were studied in the absence of enzyme at 25 degrees, gamma/2 0.28. The reaction of 6-aminocaproic acid with pyridoxal-P to form the Schiff base N6-(P-pyridoxylidene)-aminocaproic acid was studied as a model for formation of Schiff base on the holoenzyme...  (+info)

Matching on provider is risky. (74/206)


Chronic toxicity studies with vigabatrin, a GABA-transaminase inhibitor. (75/206)

The GABA-transaminase inhibitor, vigabatrin, has been shown to have a rather low degree of acute toxicity in several animal species. Oral administration of the drug at 1,000 mg/kg/day for 2-4 weeks caused decreased food consumption and weight loss with resultant prostration and death in both rats and dogs. Dosages of 200 mg/kg/day were tolerated for a year without clinical signs in dogs, although rats suffered reduced weight gains and convulsions after 3-4 months when given the drug in the diet. The convulsions continued to occur frequently throughout the one-yr study, but abated 3-4 months after cessation of treatment. The only consistent histopathologic evidence of toxicity in rats and dogs has been the finding of intramyelinic edema (microvacuolation) in the brain, most notably in certain areas of white matter (cerebellum, reticular formation and optic tract in rats and columns of fornix and optic tract in dogs). No lesions were found in the spinal cord or peripheral nervous system. It took several weeks for the microvacuolation to develop, even at high dosages, but it did not continue to progress thereafter, even though a slight effect was noted at dosages as low as 30-50 mg/kg/day after one yr of treatment. The intramyelinic edemia disappeared within a few weeks after treatment was withdrawn. No residual effects were observed in dogs, whereas rats exhibited swollen axons and microscopic mineralized bodies in the cerebellum. Monkeys exhibited no adverse clinical effects except for occasional loose stools at 300 mg/kg/day. After 16 months of oral treatment at 300 mg/kg/day any suggestion of intramyelinic edema was considered to be equivocal, and there was no evidence of any effect in the 50 or 100 mg/kg/day monkeys after 6 yr of treatment. Higher doses caused chronic diarrhea, thus limiting the dosage in this species. Vigabatrin was shown to be well absorbed in rat, dog and man, whereas dose-limited absorption occurred in the monkey. Metabolism is practically nil in all 4 species and the primary elimination pathway is by glomerular filtration. Because vigabatrin is an irreversible inhibitor of GABA-transaminase and the enzyme has a slow turnover rate, plasma levels of the drug are not indicative of its pharmacologic activity. For this reason cerebrospinal fluid levels of GABA and vigabatrin were evaluated, with considerable species differences being noted. The significance of these differences in relation to the differences in toxic response is discussed.  (+info)

Dietary amino acid analogues and transport of lysine or valine across the blood-brain barrier in rats. (76/206)

Studies were undertaken to determine if dietary disproportions of amino acids would alter flux into brain of the amino acid present in the diet in a growth-limiting concentration. Rats were adapted to a lysine-limiting diet before receiving a meal of this control diet, alone or with added lysine or homoarginine (a competitor for lysine transport) or both, before intravenous infusion of [14C]lysine. The brain-to-plasma radioactivity ratio was lower in rats fed extra lysine or homoarginine than in rats fed the control diet, whereas lysine flux and brain lysine concentration were high in rats fed extra lysine alone. Flux and concentration were lower in rats fed homoarginine + lysine than in rats fed extra lysine alone. Other rats were fed a valine-limiting diet containing added valine, norleucine (a competitor for valine transport) or both, before [14C]valine was infused. Valine flux and brain valine concentrations were higher in rats fed extra valine than in control rats, whereas flux was lower in the group fed norleucine alone. Valine flux was higher in rats fed norleucine + valine than in the rats fed norleucine alone. Our studies show that dietary disproportions of amino acids can alter the flux of specific amino acids across the blood-brain barrier.  (+info)

The relationship between inhibition of plasminogen-activator activity and prostatic involution. (77/206)

The role of plasminogen activators (PAs) as potential mediators of involution of the rat ventral prostate was investigated by using an approach involving the administration in vivo of anti-PA drugs. The prostates of castrated rats, which had been injected daily for 7 days with the anti-PA drugs 6-aminohexanoic acid, tranexamic acid, aprotinin and cortisol, were assayed for PA activity, weight and cell number. In the prostates from the castrated controls, there was a 10-fold increase in the mean PA activity and a 7-fold decrease in cell number relative to that of the non-castrated animals. Although this rise in enzyme activity could be decreased to some extent by all the drugs except aprotinin, only treatment with high doses of tranexamic acid or cortisol had a statistically significant effect. A similar pattern was observed with respect to the relative potency of the drugs in preventing the loss of prostatic weight and cell number after castration. The effects of cortisol were dose-dependent, with complete inhibition of both the rise in PA activity and cell loss occurring at a dose of about 15 mg/day. Since the concentration of the principal intranuclear androgen, dihydrotestosterone, was the same in the prostates from treated and untreated castrated rats, the effects of cortisol are not due to increased retention of this androgen. Rather, the high inverse correlation (r = 0.86) between the cellular concentration of PA activity and the cell population of the prostate implies that PAs are directly associated with prostatic involution and that cortisol, and to a lesser extent tranexamic acid, blocks the involution process through inhibition of PAs.  (+info)

The effect of different vigabatrin treatment regimens on CSF biochemistry and seizure control in epileptic patients. (78/206)

1. Vigabatrin, 50 mg kg-1, was administered orally as add-on therapy to 11 patients with drug-resistant complex partial epilepsy as a single dose, then once every third day for 2 months, every other day for 2 months and daily for 1 month. 2. Lumbar punctures were carried out prior to treatment and at the end of each dosage regimen and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluated for concentrations of free and total GABA, homocarnosine (GABA-histidine dipeptide), homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and vigabatrin. 3. Each regimen resulted in significant increases in CSF concentrations of free and total GABA and homocarnosine compared with the immediately preceding regimen. 4. CSF concentrations of HVA significantly increased after a single vigabatrin dose but returned to pre-treatment levels with subsequent dosing schedules. In contrast, 5-HIAA concentrations also increased with the single dose but were significantly decreased, compared with pre-treatment values, following alternate day and daily vigabatrin administration. 5. Seizure frequency progressively decreased with decreasing dosing interval. Daily vigabatrin administration was associated with greater than 50% decrease in seizures in 8 of the 10 patients treated.  (+info)

Effects of penicillins and 6-aminohexanoic acid on the kinetics of human plasmin. (79/206)

Human plasmin activity is inhibited by various penicillins in a dose-dependent manner. Ampicillin and cloxacillin produce a 50% inhibition of the globinolytic activity of plasmin at 4.5 and 5.3 mM respectively. A lower inhibitory capacity is displayed by carbenicillin. Assay of plasmin by its amidolytic activity on D-valyl-L-leucyl-L-lysine p-nitroanilide dihydrochloride showed that ampicillin at a concentration producing half-maximal inhibition converted the hyperbolic activity-substrate concentration curve into a sigmoidal curve. A similar conversion occurred in the presence of ampicillin when plasmin was assayed with an alternative chromogenic substrate, L-pyroglutamyl-glycyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide hydrochloride 6-Aminohexanoic acid at 7.5 microM abolished the inhibition of plasmin induced by ampicillin. The present observations suggest that ampicillin interacts with plasmin at a regulatory site different from the active site of the enzyme. The effect of 6-aminohexanoic acid indicates that the lysine-binding site may be part of a regulatory site. It is possible that modulation of plasmin activity by ligands plays a role in the control of fibrinolysis.  (+info)

Biosynthesis and incorporation into protein of norleucine by Escherichia coli. (80/206)

The methionine analog norleucine was produced during the synthesis of bovine somatotropin by Escherichia coli strain W3110G containing the recombinant plasmid pBGH1. Norleucine was generated by the leucine biosynthetic pathway from pyruvate or alpha-ketobutyrate in place of alpha-ketoisovalerate as the initial substrate. The intracellular level of norleucine was high enough to permit the analog to compete successfully with methionine for incorporation into protein. Two ways were found to prevent either the formation of norleucine or its incorporation into protein. The endogenous synthesis of norleucine was eliminated by deleting the leucine operon. The addition of sufficient methionine or 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid, a precursor of methionine, to the culture medium prevented any norleucine from being incorporated into protein.  (+info)