Potent inhibition of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15 by the phosphonamide peptide N-(phenylethylphosphonyl)-Gly-L-Pro-L-aminohexanoic acid. (25/206)

A phosphonamide peptide, N-(phenylethylphosphonyl)-Gly-L-Pro-L-aminohexanoic acid, previously shown to block Clostridium histolyticum collagenases, was examined as a putative inhibitor of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15. Hydrolysis of two endopeptidase 24.16 substrates, i.e. 3-carboxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Mcc)-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-D-Lys-dinitrophenyl (Dnp) and neurotensin, were completely and dose-dependently inhibited by the phosphonamide inhibitor with KI values of 0.3 and 0.9 nM respectively. In addition, the phosphonamide peptide inhibited the hydrolysis of benzoyl (Bz)-Gly-Ala-Ala-Phe-(pAB) p-aminobenzoate and neurotensin by endopeptidase 24.15 with about a 10-fold lower potency (KI values of 5 and 7.5 nM respectively). The selectivity of this inhibitor towards several exo- and endo-peptidases belonging to the zinc-containing metallopeptidase family established that a 1 microM concentration of this inhibitor was unable to affect leucine aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase A, angiotensin-converting enzyme and endopeptidase 24.11. The present paper therefore reports on the first hydrophilic highly potent endopeptidase 24.16 inhibitor and describes the most potent inhibitory agent directed towards endopeptidase 24.15 developed to date. These tools should allow one to assess the contribution of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15 to the physiological inactivation of neurotensin as well as other neuropeptides.  (+info)

Fibrinolysis in normal plasma and blood: evidence for significant mechanisms independent of the plasminogen-plasmin system. (26/206)

Fibrinolytic activity of normal plasma and blood has been measured by 125l-fibrin solid phase assay. Activity of plasma is not affected by removal of plasminogenplasmin by affinity chromatography. Activities of euglobulin and pseudoglobulin fractions are approximately equal. epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) (10 mM), tranexamic acid (10 mM), diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP, 50 mM), and soybean and lima bean trypsin inhibitors (100 mug/ml) do not inhibit plasma activity at concentrations that inhibit pure plasmin and urokinase-activated plasma. Activity is not affected by glass contact and is not inhibited by inhibitors of contact or enzymatic activation of Hageman factor (hexadimethrine bromide, 100 mug/ml; cytochrome C, 250 mug/ml; spermidine, 2 mM; phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, 1 mM). It is inhibited partially (30%-40%) by heating (56 degrees C, 30 min) and by zymosan (2.5 mg/ml; 40%-90% inhibition), and is increased by hydrazine (20 mM), salicylaldoxime (20 mM), DFP (50 mM), and tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (TAMe, 10 mM)-the latter two at concentrations known to inhibit Cls of the classic, and factor D of the alternate complement pathways. Increase fibrinolytic activity with TAMe is associated with reciprocal decrease in classic and alternate complement pathway activity. It is concluded that normal plasma fibrinolytic activity is relatively independent of plasmin as the ultimate fibrinolytic enzyme, that Hageman factor-dependent pathways are of minor importance, and that significant heat-stable and heat-labile nonplasmin fibrinolytic activities are operative. These may include proteinases involved in complement activation, and in common control of classic and alternate complement pathways, as well as other nonplasmin proteinases.  (+info)

GABAergic inhibition of endogenous dopamine release measured in vivo with 11C-raclopride and positron emission tomography. (27/206)

Extensive neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and behavioral evidence demonstrates that GABAergic neurons inhibit endogenous dopamine release in the mammalian corpus striatum. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in adult female baboons, using the dopamine D2-specific radiotracer 11C-raclopride, were undertaken to assess the utility of this imaging technique for measuring these dynamic interactions in vivo. 11C-raclopride binding was imaged prior to and following the administration of either gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG), a specific suicide inhibitor of the GABA-catabolizing enzyme GABA transaminase, or lorazepam, a clinically prescribed benzodiazepine agonist. Striatal 11C-raclopride binding increased following both GVG and lorazepam administration. This increase exceeded the test/retest variability of 11C-raclopride binding observed in the same animals. These findings confirm that changes in endogenous dopamine concentrations resulting from drug-induced potentiation of GABAergic transmission can be measured with PET and 11C-raclopride. Finally, this new strategy for noninvasively evaluating the functional integrity of neurophysiologically linked transmitter systems with PET supports its use as an approach for assessing the multiple mechanisms of drug action and their consequences in the human brain.  (+info)


Alterations of the coagulation potential of heparinized blood after using an extracorporeal circulation have been studied by means of a toluidine blue-calcium chloride reagent. This technique was originally used to detect the effect of activation by contact on the coagulation mechanism in heparinized blood. It has been shown that it also detects, in the presence of heparin, the clotpotentiating effect of blood cell contents liberated in vitro by mechanical trauma to blood. Variable destruction of platelets, red cells, and white cells occurred in heparinized sheep blood recirculated in a heart-lung machine in vitro. This was accompanied by increased clotting potential. Complete coagulation was prevented by heparin and fibrinogen levels remained unaltered. Similar enhancement of the coagulation potential and destruction of blood cells were detected in the blood of heparinized patients and sheep after perfusion for open-heart surgery. The coagulation changes were usually transient, and impaired coagulation associated with significant fibrinogen loss was detected in most samples taken after the neutralization of heparin. It is suggested that the coagulation changes are due to activation by contact of the coagulation mechanism during perfusion and to the clot-accelerating effect of blood cell contents. The results support the hypothesis that coagulation defects and fibrinogen loss after using an extracorporeal circulation are due, at least in part, to intravascular coagulation. This is thought to occur, especially during neutralization of heparin, while the coagulation mechanism is hyperactive.  (+info)

Passage of S(+) and R(-) gamma-vinyl-GABA across the human isolated perfused placenta. (29/206)

1. The maternal to foetal transfers of S(+)- and R(-)-gamma-vinyl-GABA (VGB) across the human isolated perfused placenta were low and comparable with those of acidic alpha-amino acids. 2. The placental uptake of the active S(+)-isomer from the maternal circulation exceeded that of the R(-)-isomer and this was reflected by a corresponding difference in placental tissue concentrations. 3. During perfusion with recirculation of the foetal medium, the two enantiomers were present at a similar concentration and did not concentrate in foetal perfusate, indicating that the excess amount of S(+)-VGB cleared from the maternal circulation was not accessible to the foetal perfusate. Furthermore, stable concentrations of both isomers in the foetal perfusate suggested a lack of placental metabolism. 4. Possible explanations of these findings include the operation of a stereoselective sodium-dependent-GABA placental uptake system on the maternal side, similar to that observed in neuronal tissue, or stereoselective binding to a placental GABA transaminase.  (+info)


Amino acids related to L-glutamic and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid have been administered electrophoretically, and by pressure ejection, into the extraneuronal environment of single neurones in the pericruciate cortex of cats anaesthetized with allobarbitone or allobarbitone-urethane. Acidic amino acids related to glutamic acid, particularly N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, excited cortical neurones. Neutral amino acids related to gamma-amino-n-butyric acid, particularly 3-amino-1-propanesulphonic acid, depressed cortical neurones. Some of the depressants blocked the antidromic invasion of Betz cells by pyramidal volleys. There are no essential differences between the sensitivities of cortical and spinal neurones towards locally administered amino acids. A transmitter function of such amino acids within the mammalian central nervous system is considered unlikely.  (+info)


Conditions were developed by which the separated H and L chains of gamma(2) globulins recombined to form four-chained molecules in good yields. In the absence of antigen, anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl (anti-DNP) H chains randomly reassociated with a mixture of antibody and non-specific gamma(2) globulin L chains. In the presence of a specific hapten, however, the antibody H chains preferentially interacted with the anti-DNP L chains. Antibody H chain-antibody L chain recombinants formed in the presence of hapten were more active than the corresponding recombinants formed in the absence of hapten. Speculations are made regarding the possible mechanisms and biological significance of these effects.  (+info)


1. On subcellular fractionation of rabbit kidney by differential and density-gradient centrifugation, a high proportion of the tissue activator of plasminogen activity was found to be particulate and displayed sedimentation properties associated with the lysosome-rich fraction as judged biochemically by the acid-phosphatase activity. 2. The activator activity is closely associated with a latent protease whose activity is enhanced in the presence of Triton X-100 or sodium deoxycholate in the neutral pH range. Besides hydrolysing casein this protease is also capable of attacking fibrinogen at pH7.4. 3. The pH optimum for activator activity and its inhibition by in-hexanoic acid (in-aminocaproic acid) point to its possible similarity to urokinase, an activator of plasminogen present in the urine of most mammals.  (+info)