Experimental galactosamine-induced hepatitis. Effect of anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic agents on microclot formation.
(17/206)An experimental hepatitis was induced in rabbits by intravenous infusion of 1 g galactosamine per kilogram of body weight. Galactosamine administration caused microclot formation in kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen in a low percentage. If, however, animals were infused with the fibrinolysis inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid in addition to galactosamine, microclots were generated in a high percentage. The microclots exhibited typical staining characteristics like those observed in the generalized Shwartzman reaction. Some animals developed bilateral renal cortical necrosis. Heparin treatment prevented the occurrence of microclot fromation after galactosamine administration, but it neither prolonged the survival time of the animals nor prevented or reduced liver cell damage. Increases in serum GPT and bilirubin levels were similar in heparin-treated and untreated rabbits. The experiments indicate that disseminated intravascular coagulation is involved in galactosamine-induced hepatitis but does not contribute to the severity of the liver injury. (+info)
A rapid and sensitive 125I-fibrin solid-phase fibrinolytic assay for plasmin.
(18/206)125I-fibrinogen, adsorbed to polystyrene tubes at low ionic strength and treated with thrombin, serves as a substrate for a rapid, convenient, and sensitive test tube assay for plasmin and activators and inhibitors of this enzyme. 125I-labeled digestion products released from the 125I-fibrin-polystyrene matrix are readily separated and quantitated and behave, on gel permeation, in the same manner as plasmin-generated degradation products from an unlabeled conventional fibrin clot. The 125I-fibrin, in probable non-cross-linked form, is firmly bound to the polystyrene and is resistant to nonspecific release, with control (no enzyme) values equivalent to 15.2 ng +/- 1.2 (SD) fibrin (1% of the total bound 125I-fibrin). This fact permits consistent detection of lysis of 30-50 ng 125I-fibrin, which exceeds published sensitivities (1000-5000 ng) using 125I- or fluorochrome-labeled fibrin clots as substrate. The sensitivity for plasmin (0.2 mug/ml) is tenfold greater than that of the fibrin-plate method (2.0-2.5 mug/ml), while sensitivities for streptokinase and urokinase activation of plasmin are 0.02 U/ml and 0.04 CTA U/ml, respectively (sensitivity of fibrin-plate method, 0.5 U/ml for both). The method provides a reasonable analogue of the solid-phase nature of fibrin under physiologic conditions, and the ease of preparation of large batches of tubes makes the method suitable for large-scale screening of factors modulating the plasminogen-plasmin system. (+info)
Reconstitution of lipoprotein(a) by infusion of human low density lipoprotein into transgenic mice expressing human apolipoprotein(a).
(19/206)Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an atherosclerosis-causing lipoprotein that circulates in human plasma as a complex of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)). It is not known whether apo(a) attaches to LDL within hepatocytes prior to secretion or in plasma subsequent to secretion. Here we describe the development of a line of mice expressing the human apo(a) transgene under the control of the murine transferrin promoter. The apo(a) was secreted into the plasma, but circulated free of lipoproteins. When human (h)-LDL was injected intravenously, the circulating apo(a) rapidly associated with the lipoproteins, as determined by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. Human HDL and mouse LDL had no such effect. When h-VLDL was injected, there was a delayed association of apo(a) with the lipoprotein fraction which suggests that apo(a) preferentially associated with a metabolic product of VLDL. The complex of apo(a) with LDL formed both in vivo and in vitro was resistant to boiling in the presence of detergents and denaturants, but was resolved upon disulfide reduction. These studies suggest that apo(a) fails to associate with mouse lipoproteins due to structural differences between human and mouse LDL, and that Lp(a) formation can occur in plasma through the association of apo(a) with circulating LDL. (+info)
Role of prothrombin fragment 1 in the pathway of regulatory exosite I formation during conversion of human prothrombin to thrombin.
(20/206)Prothrombin (Pro) activation by factor Xa generates the thrombin catalytic site and exosites I and II. The role of fragment 1 (F1) in the pathway of exosite I expression during Pro activation was characterized in equilibrium binding studies using hirudin(54-65) labeled with 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)hexanoate ([NBD]Hir(54-65)(SO3-)) or 5-(carboxy)fluorescein ([5F]Hir(54-65)(SO3-)). [NBD]Hir(54-65)(SO3-) distinguished exosite I environments on Pro, prethrombin 1 (Pre 1), and prethrombin 2 (Pre 2) but bound with the same affinities as [5F]Hir(54-65)(SO3-). Conversion of Pro to Pre 1 caused a 7-fold increase in affinity for the peptides. Conversely, fragment 1.2 (F1.2) decreased the affinity of Pre 2 for [5F]Hir(54-65)(SO3-) by 3-fold. This was correlated with a 16-fold increased affinity of F1.2 for Pre 2 in comparison to thrombin, demonstrating an enhancing effect of F1 on F1.2 binding. The active intermediate, meizothrombin, demonstrated a 50- to 220-fold increase in exosite affinity. Free thrombin and thrombin.F1.2 complex bound [5F]Hir(54-65)(SO3-) with indistinguishable affinity, indicating that the effect of F1 on peptide binding was eliminated upon expression of catalytic activity and exosite I. The results demonstrate a new zymogen-specific role for F1 in modulating the affinity of ligands for exosite I. This may reflect a direct interaction between the F1 and Pre 2 domains in Pro that is lost upon folding of the zymogen activation domain. The effect of F1 on (pro)exosite I and the role of (pro)exosite I in factor Va-dependent substrate recognition suggest that the Pro activation pathway may be regulated by (pro)exosite I interactions with factor Va. (+info)
Arginase and autoimmune inflammation in the central nervous system.
(21/206)Using a high throughput gene microarray technology that detects approximately 22 000 genes, we found that arginase I was the most significantly up-regulated gene in the murine spinal cord during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). By Northern blot and arginase enzyme assay, we detected high levels of arginase I mRNA and protein, respectively, in the spinal cord of EAE mice, but not in the spinal cord of normal mice or mice that had recovered from EAE. In vitro, both microglia and astrocytes produced arginase and nitric oxide synthase, two enzymes that are involved in arginine metabolism. To explore the roles of arginase in EAE, we injected the arginase inhibitor amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) into mice during the inductive and effector phases of the disease. Compared with mice that received vehicle control, mice treated with ABH developed milder EAE with delayed onset, reduced disease score and expedited recovery. Spleen mononuclear cells from ABH-treated mice produced more nitric oxide and secreted less interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha as compared to control mice. These results indicate that arginase plays important roles in autoimmune inflammation in the central nervous system. (+info)
Purification and properties of 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate cleavage enzyme from a lysine-fermenting Clostridium.
(22/206)The lysine-fermenting Clostridium SB4 is shown to contain a new type of beta-keto acid-degrading enzyme that converts 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate and acetyl-CoA reversibly to L-3-aminobutyryl-CoA and acetoacetate. Following the development of a sensitive radiochemical assay the enzyme was purified 175-fold to about 90% homogeneity in 44% yield. The specific activity of the purified enzyme is 44 IU/mg of protein at 30 degrees. The equilibrium constant for the forward reaction was found to be 0.68 at 30 degrees and pH 7.0, corresponding to a deltaG0' of 0.23 kcal/mol. The enzyme is highly substrate-specific. Of several substrate analogs tested in the forward and back reactions only beta-alanyl-CoA and D-3-aminobutyryl-CoA are utilized about 130% and 1.7% as fast as L-3-aminobutyryl-CoA, respectively. The product formed from beta-alanyl-CoA and acetoacetate is a neutral beta-keto acid, presumably 3-keto-5-aminopentanoic acid; its borohydride reduction product was partially characterized as a hydroxy-amino acid by various chromatographic and ion exchange methods. The activity of the purified enzyme is increased about 5-fold by addition of 0.1 mM Co2+ and to a lesser extent by Mn2+. Activity is inhibited by orthophosphate, thiol reagents, and EDTA; however, exposure of the enzyme to the latter compound prior to addition of Co2+ increases activity, presumably by removing competing divalent cations. Tracer experiments have shown that carbon atoms 1 and 2 of acetoacetate are derived from carbon atoms 1 and 2 of 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate whereas carbon atoms 3 and 4 are derived from acetyl-CoA. The amino acid moiety of 3-aminobutyryl-CoA is derived from carbon atoms 3 to 6 of 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate. Since no evidence for covalent enzyme-substrate intermediates could be obtained by the study of four possible group exchange reactions, a concerted reaction between 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate and acetyl-CoA is considered. The enzyme has a molecular weight of about 97,000 and probably contains four identical subunits. The relatively high specific activity of the enzyme in extracts of Clostridium SB4 indicates it functions in the main pathway of lysine degradation. This relatively stable enzyme provides a convenient and specific method for the quantitative estimation of nanomolar amounts of L- and D-3-aminobutyryl-CoA and beta-alanyl-CoA. (+info)
Use of aminocaproic acid (ACA) in extra-amniotic MTP in patients on anti-coagulant therapy.
(23/206)A case of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) with prosthetic mitral valve endocarditis receiving anticoagulation with heparin, underwent medical termination of pregnancy in a second trimester. The following report entails the use of aminocaproic acid (ACA) in preventing excessive bleeding during and after the procedure, while the patient continued to receive anticoagulant therapy. (+info)
Effect of vigabatrin on striatal dopamine receptors: evidence in humans for interactions of GABA and dopamine systems.
(24/206)Vigabatrin is a specific gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase inhibitor. The clinical use of this drug in the treatment of epilepsy has been sporadically linked to the development of psychosis. Using 123I-IBZM, a specific dopamine D2 receptor ligand and single photon emission tomography (SPET), one month of treatment with vigabatrin was associated with a decrease in specific binding of 123I-IBZM to D2 receptors in the left hemisphere basal ganglia. This change may provide one explanation for the development of psychosis in vulnerable patients. (+info)