The structure and function of acid proteases. V. Comparative studies on the specific inhibition of acid proteases by diazoacetyl-DL-norleucine methyl ester, 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy) propane and pepstatin.
Comparative studies have been made on the effects of diazoacetyl-DL-norleucine methyl ester (DAN), 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane (EPNP) and pepstatin on acid proteases, including those from Acrocylindrium sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus saitoi, Mucor pusillus, Paecilomyces varioti, Rhizopus chinensis, and Trametes sanguinea, and also porcine pepsin [EC 184.108.40.206] and calf rennin [EC 220.127.116.11] for comparative purposes. These enzymes were rapidly inactivated at similar rates and in 1:1 stiochiometry by reaction with DAN in the presence of cupric ions. The pH profiles of inactivation of these enzymes were similar and had optima at pH 5.5 to 6. They were also inactivated at similar rates by reaction with EPNP, with concomitant incorporation of nearly 2 EPNP molecules per molecule of enzyme. The pH profiles of inactivation were again similar and maximal inactivation was observed at around pH 3 to 4. Some of the EPNP-inactivated enzymes were treated with DAN and shown still to retain reactivity toward DAN. All these enzymes were inhibited strongly by pepstatin, and the reactions of DAN and EPNP with them were also markedly inhibited by prior treatment with pepstatin. These results indicate that the active sites of these enzymes are quite similar and that they presumably have at least two essential carboxyl groups at the active site in common, one reactive with DAN in the presence of cupric ions and the other reactive with EPNP, as has already been demonstrated for porcine pepsin and calf rennin. Pepstatin appears to bind at least part of the active site of each enzyme in a simmilar manner. (+info)
Biochemical and functional profile of a newly developed potent and isozyme-selective arginase inhibitor.
An increase in arginase activity has been associated with the pathophysiology of a number of conditions, including an impairment in nonadrenergic and noncholinergic (NANC) nerve-mediated relaxation of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle. An arginase inhibitor may rectify this condition. We compared the effects of a newly designed arginase inhibitor, 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH), with the currently available N(omega)-hydroxy-L-arginine (L-HO-Arg), on the NANC nerve-mediated internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth-muscle relaxation and the arginase activity in the IAS and other tissues. Arginase caused an attenuation of the IAS smooth-muscle relaxations by NANC nerve stimulation that was restored by the arginase inhibitors. L-HO-Arg but not ABH caused dose-dependent and complete reversal of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine-suppressed IAS relaxation that was similar to that seen with L-arginine. Both ABH and L-HO-Arg caused an augmentation of NANC nerve-mediated relaxation of the IAS. In the IAS, ABH was found to be approximately 250 times more potent than L-HO-Arg in inhibiting the arginase activity. L-HO-Arg was found to be 10 to 18 times more potent in inhibiting the arginase activity in the liver than in nonhepatic tissues. We conclude that arginase plays a significant role in the regulation of nitric oxide synthase-mediated NANC relaxation in the IAS. The advent of new and selective arginase inhibitors may play a significant role in the discrimination of arginase isozymes and have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications in gastrointestinal motility disorders. (+info)
Effect of gonadal steroids and gamma-aminobutyric acid on LH release and dopamine expression and activity in the zona incerta in rats.
A dopaminergic system in the zona incerta stimulates LH release and may mediate the positive feedback effects of the gonadal steroids on LH release. In this study the mechanisms by which steroids might increase dopamine activity in the zona incerta were investigated. In addition, experiments were conducted to determine whether the inhibitory effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on LH release in the zona incerta are due to suppression of dopamine activity in this area or conversely whether the stimulatory effects of dopamine on LH release are due to suppression of a tonic inhibitory GABAergic system. Ovariectomized rats were treated s.c. with oil, 5 micrograms oestradiol benzoate or 5 micrograms oestradiol benzoate followed 48 h later by 0.5 mg progesterone, and killed 54 h after the oestradiol benzoate injection. At this time the LH concentrations were suppressed in the oestradiol benzoate group and increased in the group treated with oestradiol benzoate and progesterone. The ratio of tyrosine hydroxylase:beta-actin mRNA in the zona incerta was significantly increased by the oestradiol benzoate treatment, but the addition of progesterone resulted in values similar to those in the control group. At the same time, the progesterone treatment increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the zona incerta as indicated by an increase in L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) accumulation after 100 mg 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine hydrochloric acid (NSD1015) kg-1 and an increase in dopamine release as indicated by a increase in dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) concentrations (one of the major metabolites of dopamine). Ovariectomized rats treated with oestradiol benzoate plus progesterone were also injected i.p. with 75 mg gamma-acetylenic GABA kg-1 (a GABA transaminase inhibitor) to increase GABA concentrations in the brain. This treatment had no effect on the ratio of tyrosine hydroxylase:beta-actin mRNA but decreased L-DOPA accumulation and DOPAC concentrations in the zona incerta, indicating a post-translational inhibition of dopamine synthesis and release. Treatment of ovariectomized rats with oestradiol benzoate followed by 100 mg L-DOPA i.p. to increase dopamine concentrations in the whole brain had no effect on glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA expression in the zona incerta, although it increased the glutamic acid decarboxylase:beta-actin mRNA ratio in other hypothalamic areas (that is, the medical preoptic area, ventromedial nucleus and arcuate nucleus). In conclusion, the steroids act to increase dopamine activity in different ways: oestrogen increases tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression and progesterone acts after translation to increase tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine release (as indicated by increases in DOPAC concentrations). This latter effect may be due to progesterone removing a tonic GABAergic inhibition from the dopaminergic system. (+info)
Studies on convulsants in the isolated frog spinal cord. I. Antagonism of amino acid responses.
1. The isolated frog spinal cord was used to study the effects of picrotoxin, bicuculline, and strychnine on the responses of primary afferents to amino acids. Recording was by sucrose gap technique. 2. A series of neutral amino acids was found to depolarize primary afferents. Optimal activity was obtained by an amino acid whose carboxyl and amino groups were separated by a three-carbon chain length (i.e. GABA). Amino acids with shorter (i.e. beta-alanine, glycine) or longer (i.e. delta-aminovaleric acid, epsilon-aminocaproic acid) distances between the charged groups were less potent. Imidazoleacetic acid was the most potent depolarizing agent tested. 3. Picrotoxin and bicuculline antagonized the primary afferent depolarizations of a number of amino acids tested with equal specificity. Depolarizing responses to standard (10- minus 3 M) concentrations of beta-alanine and taurine were completely blocked by these convulsants, while depolarizations to 10- minus 3 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were only partially antagonized. Glycine responses were unaffected by these agentsk; Strychnine completely blocked beta-alanine and taurine depolarizations and incompletely antagonized several other neutral amino acids. GABA, glutamate, and glycine depolarizations were not affected. 5. These results suggest that there are at least three distinct populations of neutral amino acid receptors on primary afferent terminals: a GABA-like receptor, a taurine/beta-alanine receptor, and a glycine-like receptor. The strychnine resistance of the glycine responses indictaes that the primary afferent receptors for glycine differ from those on the somata of spinal neurones. (+info)
Inhibition of the development of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum by omega-aminocarboxylic acids.
Four omega-aminocarboxylic acids - epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA), trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid (t-AMCHA), p-aminomethylbenzoic acid (PAMBA) and omega-aminocaprylic acid (OACA) -- prevented fruiting body formation of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. At concentrations of 40 mM, 75 mM, 10 mM and 5 mM, respectively, they allowed aggregation but prevented all further development at 24 degrees C. At lower concentrations, EACA allowed fruiting body formation but with a reduced number of spores per fruiting body. Only t-AMCHA had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of myxamoebae. EACA affected development only if it was present between 8 and 16 h after the cells were deposited on the filters. Its effect was enhanced by high salt concentrations and by higher temperature, and was also dependent on the manner in which the cells were grown. Only strains capable of axenic growth displayed this sensitivity to EACA, although strains carrying only one of the genetic markers for axenic growth (axe A) were partially sensitive. (+info)
The effect of epsilon-aminocaproic acid on biochemical changes in the development of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum.
epsilon-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) inhibited the development of Dictyostelium discoideum strain AX2 after the aggregation stage. Biochemical changes that occurred early in development (loss of cellular protein, RNA and carbohydrate; increase in the specific activity of N-acetylglucosaminidase, alpha-mannosidase, threonine deaminase and leucine aminopeptidase) were not affected by concentrations of EACA which blocked development; but biochemical changes that occurred later (synthesis of carbohydrate, increase in the specific activity of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) were inhibited. Spores from fruiting bodies formed in the presence of low concentrations of EACA were larger, more spherical and less able to survive heat treatment than spores from fruiting bodies of control (no EACA) cells. (+info)
Inhibition of intravascular fibrin deposition by dipyridamole in experimental animals.
Intravascular fibrin deposition was induced in rabbits by endotoxin, the infusion of fibrin monomer (FM), and by the infusion of thrombin and EACA. A previously developed radioisotope technique was used to measure the fibrin deposits in various organs. Dipyridamole treatment of rabbits caused significant inhibition of fibrin deposition in all three experimental models. The drug also inhibited platelet consumption and, in the thrombin- and EACA-infused animals, fibrinogen consumption as well. The results obtained with dipyridamole were compared with the effect of thorotrast. It was concluded from this comparison that the effect of dipyridamole could not be attributed to inhibition of the reticuloendothelial system. It is postulated that dipyridamole inhibits the final step at which soluble FM is precipitated as fibrin in vivo. (+info)
Solubilization of Escherichia coli nitrate reductase by a membrane-bound protease.
Nitrate reductase extracted from the membrane of Escherichia coli by alkaline heat treatment was purified to homogeneity and used to prepare specific antibody. Nitrate reductase, precipitated by this antibody from Triton extracts of the membrane, contained a third subunit not present in the purified enzyme used to prepare the antibody. Nitrate reductase precipitated by antibody from alkaline heat extracts was composed of peptide fragments of various sizes. These fragments were produced by a membrane-bound protease which was activated by alkaline pH and heat. It is the action of this protease that releases the enzyme from the membrane, as shown by the observations that protease inhibitors decreased the amount of solubilization of the enzyme, and the enzyme remaining in the membrane after heating showed much less proteolytic cleavage than that which was released. (+info)