Differential expression of alpha2-6 sialylated polylactosamine structures by human B and T cells.
We found that human peripheral B and T cells differed in the surface expression of alpha2-6 sialylated type 2 chain glycans. In contrast to B cells, T cells expressed only sialoglycans with repeated N-acetyllactosamine (Galss1-4GlcNAc) disaccharides. This finding was based on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies HB6, HB9 (CD24), HD66 (CDw76), FB21, and CRIS4 (CDw76) with the alpha2-6 sialylated model gangliosides IV6NeuAcnLc4Cer (2-6 SPG), VI6NeuAcnLc6Cer (2-6 SnHC), VIII6NeuAcnLc8Cer (2-6 SnOC), and X6NeuAcnLc10Cer (2-6 SnDC). We found that, in addition to their common requirement of an alpha2-6 bound terminal sialic acid for binding, the antibodies displayed preferences for the length of the carbohydrate backbones. Some of them bound mainly to 2-6 SPG with one N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) unit (HB9, HD66); others preferentially to 2-6 SnHC and 2-6 SnOC, with two and three LacNAc units, respectively (HB6 and FB21); and one of them exclusively to very polar alpha2-6 sialylated type 2 chain antigens (CRIS4) such as to 2-6 SnOC and even more polar gangliosides with three and more LacNAc units. These specificities could be correlated with the cellular binding of the antibodies as follows: whereas all antibodies bound to human CD 19 positive peripheral B cells, their reactivity with CD3 positive T cells was either nearly lacking (HD66, HB9), intermediate (about 65%: HB6, FB21) or strongly positive (CRIS4, 95%). Thus, the binding of the antibodies to 2-6 sialylated glycans with multiple lactosamine units appeared to determine their binding to T-cells. (+info
Enzymatic synthesis of alpha3'sialylated and multiply alpha3fucosylated biantennary polylactosamines. A bivalent [sialyl diLex]-saccharide inhibited lymphocyte-endothelium adhesion organ-selectively.
Multifucosylated sialo-polylactosamines are known to be high affinity ligands for E-selectin. PSGL-1, the physiological ligand of P-selectin, is decorated in HL-60 cells by a sialylated and triply fucosylated polylactosamine that is believed to be of functional importance. Mimicking some of these saccharide structures, we have synthesized enzymatically a bivalent [sialyl diLex]-glycan, Neu5Acalpha2-3'Lexbeta1-3'Lexbeta1-3'(Neu5Acalpha2-3'Lexbeta1-3Lexbe ta1-6')LN [where Neu5Ac is N-acetylneuraminic acid, Lex is the trisaccharide Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc and LN is the disaccharide Galbeta1-4GlcNAc]. Several structurally related, novel polylactosamine glycans were also constructed. The inhibitory effects of these glycans on two L-selectin-dependent, lymphocyte-to-endothelium adhesion processes of rats were analysed in ex-vivo Stamper-Woodruff binding assays. The IC50 value of the bivalent [sialyl diLex]-glycan at lymph node high endothelium was 50 nm, but at the capillaries of rejecting cardiac allografts it was only 5 nm. At both adhesion sites, the inhibition was completely dependent on the presence of fucose units on the sialylated LN units of the inhibitor saccharide. These data show that the bivalent [sialyl diLex]-glycan is a high affinity ligand for L-selectin, and may reduce extravasation of lymphocytes at sites of inflammation in vivo without severely endangering the normal recirculation of lymphocytes via lymph nodes. (+info
Molecular cloning of a novel alpha2,3-sialyltransferase (ST3Gal VI) that sialylates type II lactosamine structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids.
A novel member of the human CMP-NeuAc:beta-galactoside alpha2, 3-sialyltransferase (ST) subfamily, designated ST3Gal VI, was identified based on BLAST analysis of expressed sequence tags, and a cDNA clone was isolated from a human melanoma line library. The sequence of ST3Gal VI encoded a type II membrane protein with 2 amino acids of cytoplasmic domain, 32 amino acids of transmembrane region, and a large catalytic domain with 297 amino acids; and showed homology to previously cloned ST3Gal III, ST3Gal IV, and ST3Gal V at 34, 38, and 33%, respectively. Extracts from L cells transfected with ST3Gal VI cDNA in a expression vector and a fusion protein with protein A showed an enzyme activity of alpha2, 3-sialyltransferase toward Galbeta1,4GlcNAc structure on glycoproteins and glycolipids. In contrast to ST3Gal III and ST3Gal IV, this enzyme exhibited restricted substrate specificity, i.e. it utilized Galbeta1,4GlcNAc on glycoproteins, and neolactotetraosylceramide and neolactohexaosylceramide, but not lactotetraosylceramide, lactosylceramide, or asialo-GM1. Consequently, these data indicated that this enzyme is involved in the synthesis of sialyl-paragloboside, a precursor of sialyl-Lewis X determinant. (+info
Isolation and characterization of linear polylactosamines containing one and two site-specifically positioned Lewis x determinants: WGA agarose chromatography in fractionation of mixtures generated by random, partial enzymatic alpha3-fucosylation of pure polylactosamines.
We report that isomeric monofucosylhexasaccharides, Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1- 3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3) GlcNAc, Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3) GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4 GlcNAc and Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4 GlcNAc, and bifucosylhexasaccharides Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3) GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc, Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4 (Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc and Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4( Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc can be isolated in pure form from reaction mixtures of the linear hexasaccharide Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1- 3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc with GDP-fucose and alpha1,3-fucosyltransferases of human milk. The pure isomers were characterized in several ways;1H-NMR spectroscopy, for instance, revealed distinct resonances associated with the Lewis x group [Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc] located at the proximal, middle, and distal positions of the polylactosamine chain. Chromatography on immobilized wheat germ agglutinin was crucial in the separation process used; the isomers carrying the fucose at the reducing end GlcNAc possessed particularly low affinities for the lectin. Isomeric monofucosyl derivatives of the pentasaccharides GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1- 4Gl cNAc and Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4G lcN Ac and the tetrasaccharide Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc were also obtained in pure form, implying that the methods used are widely applicable. The isomeric Lewis x glycans proved to be recognized in highly variable binding modes by polylactosamine-metabolizing enzymes, e.g., the midchain beta1,6-GlcNAc transferase (Leppanen et al., Biochemistry, 36, 13729-13735, 1997). (+info
Characterization of the substrate specificity of alpha1,3galactosyltransferase utilizing modified N-acetyllactosamine disaccharides.
alpha1,3galactosyltransferase (alpha1,3GalT) catalyzes the synthesis of a range of glycoconjugates containing the Galalpha1,3Gal epitope which is recognized by the naturally occurring human antibody, anti-Gal. This enzyme may be a useful synthetic tool to produce a range of compounds to further investigate the binding site of anti-Gal and other proteins with a Galalpha1,3Gal binding site. Thus, the enzyme has been probed with a series of type 2 disaccharide-C8(Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-C8) analogs. The enzyme tolerated acceptors with modifications at C2 and C3 of the N-acetylglucosamine residue, producing a family of compounds with a nonreducing alpha1,3 linked galactose. Compounds that did not serve as acceptors were evaluated as inhibitors. Interestingly, the type 1 disaccharide-C8, Galbeta1-3GlcNAc-C8, was a good inhibitor of the enzyme (Ki = 270 microM vs. Km = 190 microM for Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-C8). A potential photoprobe, based on a modified type 2 disaccharide (octyl 3-amino-3-deoxy-3-N-(2-diazo-3, 3, 3-trifluoropropionyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1, 4)-2-acetamindo-2-deoxy-beta-D-glycopyranoside, (DTFP-LacNAc-C8)), was evaluated as an inhibitor of alpha1,3GalT. alpha1,3GalT bound DTFP-LacNAc-C8 with an affinity (Ki = 300 microM) similar to that displayed by the enzyme for LacNAc-C8. Additional studies were done to determine the enzyme's ability to transfer a range of sugars from UDP-sugar donors. The results of these experiments demonstrated that alpha1,3GalT has a strict specificity for UDP-Gal. Finally, inactivation studies with various amino acid modifiers were done to obtain information on the importance of different types of amino acids for alpha1,3GalT activity. (+info
Effects of egg-adaptation on the receptor-binding properties of human influenza A and B viruses.
Propagation of human influenza viruses in embryonated chicken eggs (CE) results in the selection of variants with amino acid substitutions near the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule. To evaluate the mechanisms by which these substitutions enable human virus growth in CE, we studied the binding of 10 human influenza A (H1N1, H3N2) and B strains, isolated and propagated solely in MDCK cells, and of their egg-adapted counterparts to preparations of cellular membranes, gangliosides, sialylglycoproteins, and sialyloligosaccharides. All egg-adapted variants differed from nonadapted strains by increased binding to the plasma membranes of chorio-allantoic (CAM) cells of CE and by the ability to bind to CAM gangliosides. In addition, there was no decrease in affinity for inhibitors within allantoic fluid. These findings indicate that growth of human influenza viruses in CE is restricted because of their inefficient binding to receptors on CAM cells and that gangliosides can play an important role in virus binding and/or penetration. The effects of the egg-adaptation substitutions on the receptor-binding properties of the viruses include (i) enhancement of virus binding to the terminal Sia(alpha2-3)Gal determinant (substitutions in HA positions 190, 225 of H1N1 strains and in position 186 of H3N2 strains); (ii) a decrease of steric interference with more distant parts of the Sia(alpha2-3Gal)-containing receptors (a loss of glycosylation sites in positions 163 of H1 HA and 187 of type B HA); and (iii) enhanced ionic interactions with the negatively charged molecules due to charged substitutions at the tip of the HA [187, 189, 190 (H1), and 145, 156 (H3)]. Concomitantly with enhanced binding to Sia(alpha2-3)Gal-terminated receptors, all egg-adapted variants decreased their affinity for equine macroglobulin, a glycoprotein bearing terminal 6'-sialyl(N-acetyllactosamine)-moieties. (+info
Lipid A modifications characteristic of Salmonella typhimurium are induced by NH4VO3 in Escherichia coli K12. Detection of 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, phosphoethanolamine and palmitate.
Two-thirds of the lipid A in wild-type Escherichia coli K12 is a hexa-acylated disaccharide of glucosamine in which monophosphate groups are attached at positions 1 and 4'. The remaining lipid A contains a monophosphate substituent at position 4' and a pyrophosphate moiety at position 1. The biosynthesis of the 1-pyrophosphate unit is unknown. Its presence is associated with lipid A translocation to the outer membrane (Zhou, Z., White, K. A., Polissi, A., Georgopoulos, C., and Raetz, C. R. H. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 12466-12475). To determine if a phosphatase regulates the amount of the lipid A 1-pyrophosphate, we grew cells in broth containing nonspecific phosphatase inhibitors. Na2WO4 and sodium fluoride increased the relative amount of the 1-pyrophosphate slightly. Remarkably, NH4VO3-treated cells generated almost no 1-pyrophosphate, but made six major new lipid A derivatives (EV1 to EV6). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry of purified EV1 to EV6 indicated that these compounds were lipid A species substituted singly or in combination with palmitoyl, phosphoethanolamine, and/or aminodeoxypentose residues. The aminodeoxypentose residue was released by incubation in chloroform/methanol (4:1, v/v) at 25 degrees C, and was characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shifts and vicinal coupling constants of the two anomers of the aminodeoxypentose released from EV3 closely resembled those of synthetic 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose. NH4VO3-induced lipid A modification did not require the PhoP/PhoQ two-component regulatory system, and also occurred in E. coli msbB or htrB mutants. The lipid A variants that accumulate in NH4VO3-treated E. coli K12 are the same as many of those normally found in untreated Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella minnesota, demonstrating that E. coli K12 has latent enzyme systems for synthesizing these important derivatives. (+info
Role of lactosyl glycan sequences in inhibiting enteropathogenic Escherichia coli attachment.
Previously, we found that asialo-lactosamine sequences served as receptors for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) binding to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In the present report, we have extended these earlier results by examining the ability of lactosamine- or fucosylated lactosamine-bovine serum albumin (BSA) glycoconjugates to inhibit EPEC, strain E2348/69, binding to HEp-2 cells. We found that, consistent with our previous findings with CHO cells, N-acetyllactosamine-BSA was the most effective inhibitor of EPEC localized adherence to HEp-2 cells, with Lewis X-BSA being the next best inhibitor. Further investigation revealed that coincubating EPEC E2348/69 with these BSA glycoconjugates alone caused a decrease in the expression of the bundle-forming pilus structural subunit (BfpA) and intimin by the bacteria. BfpA and intimin expression were reduced to the greatest extent by N-acetyllactosamine-BSA and Lewis X-BSA, respectively. These results suggest that the glycoconjugate inhibition of EPEC binding to HEp-2 cells might be achieved, wholly or in part, by an active mechanism that is distinct from simple competitive antagonism of receptor-adhesin interactions. (+info