Disaccharides as a new class of nonaccumulated osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti.
Sucrose and ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidine carboxylic acid) are very unusual osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti because these compounds, unlike other bacterial osmoprotectants, do not accumulate as cytosolic osmolytes in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells. Here, we show that, in fact, sucrose and ectoine belong to a new family of nonaccumulated sinorhizobial osmoprotectants which also comprises the following six disaccharides: trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, gentiobiose, turanose, and palatinose. Also, several of these disaccharides were very effective exogenous osmoprotectants for strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars phaseoli and trifolii. Sucrose and trehalose are synthesized as endogenous osmolytes in various bacteria, but the other five disaccharides had never been implicated before in osmoregulation in any organism. All of the disaccharides that acted as powerful osmoprotectants in S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum also acted as very effective competitors of [14C]sucrose uptake in salt-stressed cultures of these bacteria. Conversely, disaccharides that were not osmoprotective for S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum did not inhibit sucrose uptake in these bacteria. Hence, disaccharide osmoprotectants apparently shared the same uptake routes in these bacteria. Natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantification of cytosolic solutes demonstrated that the novel disaccharide osmoprotectants were not accumulated to osmotically significant levels in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells; rather, these compounds, like sucrose and ectoine, were catabolized during early exponential growth, and contributed indirectly to enhance the cytosolic levels of two endogenously synthesized osmolytes, glutamate and the dipeptide N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide. The ecological implication of the use of these disaccharides as osmoprotectants is discussed. (+info)
Role of Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate as an enzyme stabilizer and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of hydroxyectoine.
Strain CHR63 is a salt-sensitive mutant of the moderately halophilic wild-type strain Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 that is affected in the ectoine synthase gene (ectC). This strain accumulates large amounts of Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate (NADA), the precursor of ectoine (D. Canovas, C. Vargas, F. Iglesias-Guerra, L. N. Csonka, D. Rhodes, A. Ventosa, and J. J. Nieto, J. Biol. Chem. 272:25794-25801, 1997). Hydroxyectoine, ectoine, and glucosylglycerate were also identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as cytoplasmic organic solutes in this mutant. Accumulation of NADA, hydroxyectoine, and ectoine was osmoregulated, whereas the levels of glucosylglycerate decreased at higher salinities. The effect of the growth stage on the accumulation of solutes was also investigated. NADA was purified from strain CHR63 and was shown to protect the thermolabile enzyme rabbit muscle lactate dehydrogenase against thermal inactivation. The stabilizing effect of NADA was greater than the stabilizing effect of ectoine or potassium diaminobutyrate. A (1)H NMR analysis of the solutes accumulated by the wild-type strain and mutants CHR62 (ectA::Tn1732) and CHR63 (ectC::Tn1732) indicated that H. elongata can synthesize hydroxyectoine by two different pathways-directly from ectoine or via an alternative pathway that converts NADA into hydroxyectoine without the involvement of ectoine. (+info)
A cycle of deprotonation and reprotonation energizing amino-acid transport?
Although lowering the pK2 of neutral amino acids only weakens their concentrative uptake by Ehrlich cells, the same change greatly enhances uptake of diamino acids. This effect does not arise merely from putting the distal amino group in its uncharged form, but depends on an enhanced deprotonation of the alpha-amino group. Parallel effects are seen for the transport system for basic amino acids, for which the assignment of pK values within the membrane is less ambiguous. To explain the paradoxical advantages of having the alpha-amino group protonated yet readily deprotonated, we propose that a proton withdrawn from that group is pumped over an intramembrane interval to energize amino-acid transport. (+info)
The contribution of a conformationally mobile, active site loop to the reaction catalyzed by glutamate semialdehyde aminomutase.
The behavior of glutamate semialdehyde aminomutase, the enzyme that produces 4-aminolevulinate for tetrapyrrole synthesis in plants and bacteria, is markedly affected by the extent to which the central intermediate in the reaction, 4,5-diaminovalerate, is allowed to dissociate. The kinetic properties of the wild-type enzyme are compared with those of a mutant form in which a flexible loop, that reversibly plugs the entrance to the active site, has been deleted by site-directed mutagenesis. The deletion has three effects. The dissociation constant for diaminovalerate is increased approximately 100-fold. The catalytic efficiency of the enzyme, measured as k(cat)/K(m) in the presence of saturating concentrations of diaminovalerate, is lowered 30-fold to 2.1 mM(-1) s(-1). During the course of the reaction, which begins with the enzyme in its pyridoxamine form, the mutant enzyme undergoes absorbance changes not seen with the wild-type enzyme under the same conditions. These are proposed to be due to abortive complex formation between the pyridoxal form of the enzyme (formed by dissociation of diaminovalerate) and glutamate semialdehyde itself. (+info)
Purified NS2B/NS3 serine protease of dengue virus type 2 exhibits cofactor NS2B dependence for cleavage of substrates with dibasic amino acids in vitro.
Dengue virus type 2 NS3, a multifunctional protein, has a serine protease domain (NS3pro) that requires the conserved hydrophilic domain of NS2B for protease activity in cleavage of the polyprotein precursor at sites following two basic amino acids. In this study, we report the expression of the NS2B-NS3pro precursor in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with a histidine tag at the N terminus. The precursor was purified from insoluble inclusion bodies by Ni(2+) affinity and gel filtration chromatography under denaturing conditions. The denatured precursor was refolded to yield a purified active protease complex. Biochemical analysis of the protease revealed that its activity toward either a natural substrate, NS4B-NS5 precursor, or the fluorogenic peptide substrates containing two basic residues at P1 and P2, was dependent on the presence of the NS2B domain. The peptide with a highly conserved Gly residue at P3 position was 3-fold more active as a substrate than a Gln residue at this position. The cleavage of a chromogenic substrate with a single Arg residue at P1 was NS2B-independent. These results suggest that heterodimerization of the NS3pro domain with NS2B generates additional specific interactions with the P2 and P3 residues of the substrates. (+info)
Ectoine, the compatible solute of Halomonas elongata, confers hyperosmotic tolerance in cultured tobacco cells.
1,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid (ectoine) functions as a compatible osmolyte in the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata OUT30018. Ectoine is biosynthesized by three successive enzyme reactions from aspartic beta-semialdehyde. The genes encoding the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis, ectA, ectB, and ectC, encoding L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid acetyltransferase, L-2, 4-diaminobutyric acid transaminase, and L-ectoine synthase, respectively, have been previously cloned. To investigate the function of ectoine as a compatible solute in plant cells, the three genes were individually placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and introduced together into cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv Bright Yellow 2 (BY2) cells. The transgenic BY2 cells accumulated a small quantity of ectoine (14-79 nmol g(-1) fresh weight) and showed increased tolerance to hyperosmotic shock (900 mOsm). Furthermore, the transgenic BY2 cells exhibited a normal growth pattern even under hyperosmotic conditions (up to 530 mOsm), in which the growth of the untransformed BY2 (wild type) cells was obviously delayed. These results suggest that genetically engineered synthesis of ectoine results in the increased hyperosmotic tolerance of cultured tobacco BY2 cells despite the low level of accumulation of the solute. (+info)
SH3 domain recognition of a proline-independent tyrosine-based RKxxYxxY motif in immune cell adaptor SKAP55.
Src-homology 3 (SH3) domains recognize PXXP core motif preceded or followed by positively charged residue(s). Whether SH3 domains recognize motifs other than proline-based sequences is unclear. In this study, we report SH3 domain binding to a novel proline-independent motif in immune cell adaptor SKAP55, which is comprised of two N-terminal lysine and arginine residues followed by two tyrosines (i.e. RKxxYxxY). Domains capable of binding to class I proline motifs bound to the motif, while the class II domains failed to bind. Peptide precipitation, alanine scanning and in vivo co-expression studies demonstrated a requirement for the arginine, lysine and tandem tyrosines of the motif. Two-dimensional NMR analysis of the peptide bound FYN-SH3 domain showed overlap with the binding site of a proline-rich peptide on the charged surface of the SH3 domain, while resonance signals for other residues (W119, W120, Y137) were not perturbed by the RKGDYASY based peptide. Expression of the RKGDYASY peptide potently inhibited TcRzeta/CD3-mediated NF-AT transcription in T cells. Our findings extend the repertoire of SH3 domain binding motifs to include a tyrosine-based motif and demonstrate a regulatory role for this motif in receptor signaling. (+info)
Apolipoprotein E;-low density lipoprotein receptor interaction. Influences of basic residue and amphipathic alpha-helix organization in the ligand.
Conserved lysines and arginines within amino acids 140-150 of apolipoprotein (apo) E are crucial for the interaction between apoE and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). To explore the roles of amphipathic alpha-helix and basic residue organization in the binding process, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on the 22-kDa fragment of apoE (amino acids 1-191). Exchange of lysine and arginine at positions 143, 146, and 147 demonstrated that a positive charge rather than a specific basic residue is required at these positions. Consistent with this finding, substitution of neutral amino acids for the lysines at positions 143 and 146 reduced the binding affinity to about 30% of the wild-type value. This reduction corresponds to a decrease in free energy of binding of approximately 600 cal/mol, consistent with the elimination of a hydrogen-bonded ion pair (salt bridge) between a lysine on apoE and an acidic residue on the LDLR. Binding activity was similarly reduced when K143 and K146 were both mutated to arginine (K143R + K146R), indicating that more than the side-chain positive charge can be important.Exchanging lysines and leucines indicated that the amphipathic alpha-helical structure of amino acids 140-150 is critical for normal binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor. (+info)