Twelfth rib resection as an approach for portal vein cannulation in sheep.
A surgical technique involving resection of the twelfth rib was used to insert silastic cannulas into the portal veins of three sheep to study amino acid metabolism. Good exposure to the vein was achieved by this method although it required positive ventilation due to the penetration of the thoracic cavity. All cannulas were buried subcutaneously and exteriorized near the dorsal midline. This facilitated continuous infusion into the portal cannula without disturbing cannula placement. (+info)
The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. The tryptic peptides.
The NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa was digested with trypsin, and peptides accounting for 441 out of the 452 residues of the polypeptide chain were isolated and substantially sequenced. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50052 (11 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem J. (1975) 145, 5. (+info)
The isolation and partial characterization of the serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of the rainbow trout.
1. VLD (very-low-density), LD (low-density) and HD (high-density) lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). 2. Each lipoprotein class resembled that of the human in immunological reactivity, electrophoretic behaviour and appearance in the electron microscope. Trout LD lipoprotein, however, was of greater density than human LD lipoprotein. 3. The trout lipoproteins have lipid compositions which are similar to those of the corresponding human components, except for their high contents of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. 4. HD and LD lipoproteins were immunologically non-identical, whereas LD lipoproteins possessed antigenic determinants in common with VLD lipoproteins. 5. VLD and HD lipoproteins each contained at least seven different apoproteins, whereas LD liprotein was composed largely of a single apoprotein which resembled human apolipoprotein B. 6. At least one, and possibly three, apoprotein of trout HD lipoprotein showed features which resemble human apoprotein A-1.7. The broad similarity between the trout and human lipoprotein systems suggests that both arose from common ancestral genes early in evolutionary history. (+info)
Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein.
1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined. (+info)
Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product.
The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin. (+info)
Association of polymorphism at the type I collagen (COL1A1) locus with reduced bone mineral density, increased fracture risk, and increased collagen turnover.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between a common polymorphism within intron 1 of the COL1A1 gene and osteoporosis in a nested case-control study. METHODS: We studied 185 healthy women (mean +/- SD age 54.3+/-4.6 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and fractures were determined radiographically. The COL1A1 genotype was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction and Bal I endonuclease digestion. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies were similar to those previously observed and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: SS 61.1%, Ss 36.2%, and ss 2.7%. Carriage of at least one copy of the "s" allele was associated with a significant reduction in lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.02) and an increased risk of total fracture (P = 0.04). Urinary pyridinoline levels were significantly elevated in those with the risk allele (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data support the findings that the COL1A1 gene polymorphism is associated with low BMD and fracture risk, and suggest a possible physiologic effect on total body turnover of type I collagen. (+info)
Basic homopolyamino acids, histones and protamines are potent antagonists of angiogenin binding to ribonuclease inhibitor.
A radio-ribonuclease inhibitor assay based on the interaction of 125I-angiogenin with ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) was used to detect pancreatic-type ribonucleases and potential modulators of their action. We show that highly basic proteins including the homopolypeptides poly-arginine, poly-lysine and poly-ornithine, core histones, spermatid-specific S1 protein and the protamines HP3 and Z3 were strong inhibitors of angiogenin binding to RI. A minimum size of poly-arginine and poly-lysine was required for efficient inhibition. The inhibition likely resulted from direct association of the basic proteins with the acidic inhibitor, as RI bound to poly-lysine and protamines while 125I-angiogenin did not. Antagonists of the angiogenin-RI interaction are potential regulators of either angiogenin-triggered angiogenesis and/or intracellular RI function, depending on their preferential target. (+info)
The DNA binding activity of Translin is mediated by a basic region in the ring-shaped structure conserved in evolution.
DNA binding proteins, for the most part, function as dimers or tetramers which recognize their target sequences. Here we show that Translin, a novel single-stranded DNA end binding protein, forms a ring-shaped structure conserved throughout evolution and that this structure is responsible for its DNA binding activity. Point mutations at Leu184 and Leu191 in the leucine zipper motif of human Translin resulted in loss of the multimeric structure and abrogation of DNA binding. Point mutations at R86, H88, H90 to T86, N88, N90 in one of the basic regions, however, completely inhibited the DNA binding activity without affecting the multimeric structure. These results support the view that the DNA binding domain of Translin is formed in the ring-shaped structure in combination with its basic region (amino acids 86-97) polypeptides. (+info)